Development And Performance Evaluation Of Durability Testing Machine

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering

Development And Performance Evaluation Of Durability Testing Machine


Abstract


Durability is used for quantifying the quality of briquette as the ratio of the unbroken weight to initial weight of briquette. This equally measure the durability of briquette under impact load during transportation and handling. A durability machine was developed and has dimension of 300mmΓ—(25Γ—25Γ—3mm)Γ—450mm.It was powered by electric motor of size 0.93hp.The results show that briquette formed from moringa stover has durability of 50%,63.4% and 79% from treatment T1 (100g ) , T2 ( 200g ) And T3(300g) respectively with corresponding unit density of (0.126kg/m3,0.130kg/m3 and 0.194kg/m3).Castor stover has durability of 63.4%,73.3% and79,7% from treatment T1 ( 100g ) , T2 (200g ) And T3(300g) respectively and unit density of 0.162kg/m3,0.167kg/m3and 0.193kg/m3).sorghum stover has durability of (73.3%,79% and 87.4%) from treatment T1(100g), T2(200g) And T3(300g) and unit density of 0.316kg/m3,0.273kg/m3and 0.262kg/m3.the testing duration 3min and rotational speed 40rpm. . The durability test shows that sorghum stover has the highest durability compares to moringa stover and castor stover


Table of Content


  • Tittle page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content
  • List of Figure
  • List of Table

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Preambles
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problems
  • 1.3 Durability Characteristics
  • 1.4 Objectives
  • 1.5 Justification

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Definition of Durability
  • 2.2 Durability measurement and equipment
  • 2.2.1 Tumbler tester
  • 2.2.2 Dural tester
  • 2.2.3 Lingo tester
  • 2.2.4 Holmen tester
  • 2.2.5 Drop tester
  • 2.3 Durability tester
  • 2.3.1 Briquette durability test
  • 2.3.2 Pellet durability test
  • 2.3.3 Durability test of cubes
  • 2.4 Factors affecting durability of briquette
  • 2.4.1 Effects of feed constituent on durability of briquette
  • 2.4.2 Effect on moisture content on durability of briquette
  • 2.4.3 Effect of particle size on durability of briquette
  • 2.4.4 Effect of steam conditioning/preheating on durability of briquette
  • 2.4.5 Effects of binders/addictives on durability of briquette

Chapter Three:

Material and Methodology

  • 3.1 Material
  • 3.2 Description of durability testing machine
  • 3.3 Component part of the machine
  • 3.3.1 Frame
  • 3.3.2 Durability box
  • 3.3.3 Pulley and belt
  • 3.3.4 Bearing
  • 3.3.5 Shaft
  • 3.3.6 Key
  • 3.3.7 Electric motor
  • 3.4 Design consideration
  • 3.4.1 Portability
  • 3.4.2 Cost of production
  • 3.4.3 Area/volume
  • 3.5 Assembly of the construction
  • 3.6 Design calculation
  • 3.6.1 Determination of power transmitted shaft
  • 3.6.2 Pulley design
  • 3.6.3 Belt design
  • 3.7 Performance evaluation
  • 3.7.1 Experimental design
  • 3.7.2 Experimental instrument
  • 3.7.3 Experimental material
  • 3.7.4 Experimental procedure

Chapter Four:

Result and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.1.1 Durability and unit density of moringa ground
  • 4.1.2 Durability and unit density of castor ground
  • 4.1.3 Durability and unit density of sorghum ground
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five:

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Reference
  • Appendix

List of Figure


  • Figure 2.1 Holmen pellet tester
  • Figure 4.1 Durability line for moringa briquette
  • Figure 4.1.1 Unit density of moringa briquette
  • Figure 4.2 Durability line for castor briquette
  • Figure 4.2.1 Unit density of castor briquette
  • Figure 4.3 Durability line for sorghum briquette
  • Figure 4.3.1 Unit density of sorghum briquette

List of Table


  • Table 3.1 Cost Analysis
  • Table 4.1.1 Durability of moringa briquette produced from different treatment of moringa ground.
  • Table 4.1.2 Durability of castor briquette produced from different treatment of castor ground.
  • Table 4.1.3 Durability of sorghum briquette produced from different treatment of sorghum ground.

List of Plate


  • Plate 1 Tumbler tester for durability testing machine
  • Plate 2 Dural tester for durability testing machine
  • Plate 3 Dural tester for durability testing machine
  • Plate 4 Durability testing machine

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Preamble

Durability is the assurance or probability that an equipment, machine or material will have a relative long continuous useful life, without requiring an inordinate degree of maintenance. It is the ability to undergo permanent deformation without cracking or fracturing.

Durability testing is performance testing equipment used to determine the characteristics of a system under various load condition over time. This testing help us to identify the stability of a transaction response times over the duration of the test.

The importance of durability is to know the shell life of an equipment or agricultural material like the other dimension of quality, it is easier to plan durability into a product design and manufacture process that it is alter the finished product. There are many ways to increase a product durability, you can increase it’s by using durable part an modules in your product. Another way to increase durability is to use redundancy redundant part can vastly increase durability, however it will increase the product weight and cost as well. And finally another way to increase durability is to design a product or equipment for the most demanding user, that way to the average user the products appear to be very durable (Tomas foster 2001).

When designing a product and its durability, you should design with your product base, user base, manufacturing base and value base in mind. Difference product bases require different levels of durability. The difference can be seen in an equipment, vehincles e.g (the two types of ford vehicles, the crown Victoria which is a law enforcement vehicle and the focus which is an economic car both vehicles are design from the ground up to be different types of cars with the different levels of durability. Another example is a non durable product is the common light bulb.

Light bulbs are design to last about a year or less and the slightest power surge or vibration can break their filament, rendering them useless. It would be nearly impossible to increase the durability of finished light bulb. However if you design light bulb for extended life and use a quality manufacturing process, you can drastically increase the durability of the light bulb (Hall, 2001).


1.2 Statement of The Problem

Agricultural material during processing of briquette or pellet is one of the most environment problems in developing countries. The unavailability of equipment to test the durability of briquette/pellets produce from biomass cannot be over emphasized, hence there is need to develop a machine to solve these challenges.

However the decreasing life span of agricultural material draw the attention to the need to consider an equipment which will determine the span of a material.


1.3 Durability Characteristics

Durability characteristics are stated below:

  1. Dust resistance.
  2. It will free from fire resistance.
  3. Radiation hardening.
  4. Thermal resistance.
  5. Rot proofing.
  6. Rust proofing.
  7. Toughness.
  8. Water proofing.
  9. Ability to withstand wear, pressure or damage.

1.4 Objectives of the Project

The main aim of this project is to develop a machine that can be used to determine the durability of briquette produced from agricultural materials.

The objectives of this project work are to;

  1. Design and fabrication of durability testing machine
  2. Carry out performance evaluation of durability testing machine

1.5 Justification

The development and performance evaluation of a durability testing machine will go a long way

  1. To assist producer of briquette to determine the ability of the briquette produce to impact load
  2. To enhance the increase in production of biomass.
  3. To generate revenue from researches who engage the equipment for determination of the durability of briquette.

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The durability testing machine for briquette is designed and fabricated. The performance shows that the machine work well and perform the operation as expected.

  • The durability of moringa briquette for treatment1 (one) is 50%.
  • The durability of moringa briquette for treatment2 (two) is 63.4%.
  • The durability of moringa briquette for treatment3 (three) is 79.7%.
  • The durability of castor briquette for treatment1(one) is 63.4%.
  • The durability of castor briquette for treatment2 (two) is 73.3%.
  • The durability of castor briquette for treatment3 (three) is 79.7%
  • The durability of sorghum briquette for treatment1 (one) is 73.3%.
  • The durability of sorghum briquette for treatment2 (two) is 79%.
  • The durability of sorghum briquette for treatment3 (three) is 87.4%.
  • The test reveals that sorghum briquette has the highest durability value of 87.4%.

5.2 Recommendation

In reference to the result, the diameter of the hole of mesh hardware cloth should be increased to 12.5mm instead of 3mm so as to increase the performance operation of the machine to be effective.


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