The Development And Mass Production Of Chemical Synthesized Drugs Have Revolutionized Healthcare In Most Part Of The World

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

The Development And Mass Production Of Chemical Synthesized Drugs Have Revolutionized Healthcare In Most Part Of The World


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Herbal Bitters

Herbal medicine is “the knowledge, skills and practice based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in maintenance of health and in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness” (W.H.O 2005). There are different systems of herbal medicine and the philosophy and practices of each are influenced by the prevailing conditions, environment, and geographic area within which it first evolved (W.H.O 2005), however, a common philosophy is a holistic approach to life, equilibrium of the mind, body and the environment and an emphasis on health rather than on diseases. Generally, the focus is on the overall condition of the individual rather than the particular ailment or disease from which the patient is suffering and the use of herbs is a core part of all system of traditional medicine. (Ergebreten 2002; Conboy et al., 2007; Rishon 2008, Schmidt et al., 2008). Over the past 100, the development and mass production of chemical synthesized drugs have revolutionized healthcare in most part of the world.

However, large section of the population in developing countries still rely on traditional practitioners and herbal medicine for primary care. In Africa, up to 90% and in India, 70% of their population depend on herbal medicine to help meet their healthcare needs. In China, herbal medicine account for around 40% of all healthcares delivered and more than 90% of general hospitals in China have unit for herbal medicine (W.H.O 2005). However, use of herbal medicine is not limited to developing countries, and during the past two decade public interest in natural therapies has increased greatly in industrialized countries, with expanding use of ethnobonicals. In the united state, in 2007, about 38% of adult and 12% of children were using some form of herbal medicine (Ernst, Schmint and Wider; Barnes, Bloom, and Nahim).

The most common reasons for using herbal medicine are that, it is more affordable; more closely corresponds to patients idealogy, allays concerns about the adverse effects of chemical (synthetic) medicine, satisfies a desire for more personalized healthcare, and allows greater public access to health information. The major use of herbal medicine is for health promotion and therapy for chronic ailment, as opposed to life threatening conditions. However, the usage of herbal remedies, increases when conventional medicine is ineffective in the treatment of diseases, such as in advance cancer and in the face of new infectious diseases. Furthermore, herbal medicines are widely perceived as natural and safe, that is not toxic. This is not necessarily true, especially when herbs are taken with prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, or other herbs, as is very common (Canter and Ernst 2004; Qato et al, 2008; Loya, Gonzalez-Stuart, and Rivera 2009; Cohen and Ernst 2010).

Herbs and plants can be processed and can be taken in different ways and forms and they includes the whole herbs, teas, syrup, essential oils, ointments, salves, rubs, capsules, bitters and tablets that that contain a ground or powdered form of a raw herb or its dried extract.Plants and shrubs extract vary in the solvent used for extraction, temperature and extraction time and include alcoholic extract (tinctures), vinegars (acetic acids extracts), hot water extract (tisanes), long term boiled extract,usually roots or bark (decoction), and cold infusion of plants (macerates). There is no standardization and components of an herbal extract or a product are likely to vary significantly between batches and producers. Plants are rich in a variety of compounds. Many are secondary metabolites and include aromatic substances, most of which are phenol or their oxygen substitution derivatives such as tannis. (Hartmann 2007; Janke-KODAMA, Muller and Dittmann 2008). Many of these compound have anti oxidant properties.


1.2 Introduction Of Yoyo Bitters As Herbal Plants

Yoyo bitters is a plant based medicine in the class of herbal bitters that was launched into the market in 2003 by Abllat company Nigeria Limited. Abllat Nigeria limited is an indigenous manufacturer nature green medicine. After it was introduced into Nigeria drug market. Yoyo bitters tonic has received wide acceptance and usage by general populace. The ingredients used for production of yoyo bitters as published by the manufacturers are: Acinos avenis, Chenopodium murale, Citrus aurantifolia and Cinamomum aromaticum. Each of these components has several medicinal properties.


1.3 Component Of Yoyo Bitters

Acinos avensis: it serves as antiseptic stimulant tonic. It is also used for shortness of breath ,improving digestion, treating bruises, toothaches, sciatica and neuralgia.

Chenopodium murale: it is commonly known as nettle leaf goosefoot and is an important annual weed. It is distributed throughout the temperate and tropical regions and found in Pakistan in almost every field in winter season.

Citrus auantifolia: citrus species are among the native plants of Iran and the history of their cultivation dates back to 4000years ago from which time, they have been widely used in the ethno medicine. These species with the wide range of bioactive ingredients have been found to exert anti-infection and anti- inflammatory properties. Citrus fruits have also been found beneficial for cancer prevention in an epidemiological survey. These fruits contain several classes of phytochemicals and micronutrients such as limonoids and flavonoids, which have been reported to have anti-tumor effects in vivo and vitro.

Cinamomum aromaticum: Aqueous cinnamon extract from bark of cinnamomum cassia (cinamomum aromaticum) cause apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Yoyo bitters is formulated in such a way that the ingredients have a synergetic effect on the management of the digestive circulatory, nervous, urinary and systems bydecreasing the stomach acidicity in case of ulcer, diminishing the irregular production of gastric juice stimulating the liver to ensure proper and complete digestion of heavy and fatty food, enhancing blood circulation, assists in the elimination of cholesterol, sugar triglycerides, creatine and ulric acid, enhances effective function of the secretive glands and is beneficial in the treatment of disorders such as insomnia, stress, depression, kidney stone and bladder infections.

It is also reported to dissolve any encased toxic materials in the body, enhance cell formation and growth, reduce excess body fat and boost healthy weight loss(Allbat company Nigeria Limited, 2009) “Yoyo bitters leaflet”


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