Development Of Aerosol Insecticide Using Local Raw Materials

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Development Of Aerosol Insecticide Using Local Raw Materials


Abstract


This research work was carried out on the development of aerosol insecticide using local raw material. This was made possible through careful and through review of some organic substances to obtain their various properties and characteristic under various conditions. The following promised to be active in the formulation of a biodegradable aerosol insecticide which is non toxic and capable of blocking the respiratory ‘mechanics’ of target insects, especially, the mouth sucking insects. The chemical substances are classified according to their sources. They are as follows:-

  1. The nature local organic compounds;’ they are refenone (an extract from lonchoearpus nunits or annun) citronellal (an extract from lemon grass) piperinal (a synergist) and solvents for extraction.
  2. The synthetic local organic compounds; they are DDVP (Dichloro- dimetty , vinyl phosphate, allethrich. Piperinal, simple paraffin, benzaldehyde and perfume.

In the formulation and production of these insecticides, some chemical process were involved such as pulverization (grind), folteration, extraction heating, stiring etc for the purpose of formulation different standard ratios were used. For instance, for natural local organic compound insecticide, the formulation was 60% by volume of rotenone, 30% by volume of citronellal and 10% by volume of the synergist (ie piperinal) and annyl alcohol. For the synthhetic one, the formulation was 0.5% by volume of DDVP, 0.45% by volume of allethrin, 0.35% by volume, 95% by volume of simple paraffin and 3.7% by volume of mixture of benzaldehyde and perfume.

In both products, they were found to be effective when tested. But it was found that the insecticide from synthetic raw materials had better efficiency than the one from natural raw materials.

From further test and observation, it was found that the insecticides has little or no effect on the environment.

Finally, the products were stored in a pressurized spray cans for use. Recommendation were made on the proper management of the insects and also conclusions were drawn to that effect.


Chapter One


Introduction

Insecticides are agents, or preparation for destroying insects and related animals by disruption of vital processes through chemical action. To be more precise, insecticides are materials used for the metigation, control or elimination of insects or animals that are detrimental to human health and economy.

Recent discoveries of new synthetic insecticides led to major advances in insecticide technology. Coupled with development in aerosol biophysics, highly active chemicals can now be effectively applied to target species to give maximum control of insect peste. Armed with these techniques man is able to subdue and control pest of agricultural, veterinary and public health importance.

Research scientist have developed a range of insecticides formulations, each specifically designed to combat insect pest affecting man’s health, livestock or economy with maximum safety and efficiency.

Chemically, insecticides may be of organic or inorganic origin. Also they possess different methods of action and could be classified according to these different methods of action such as stomach poisoning, contact poisoning, residual poisoning, system poisoning, fumigants, repellants or attractants. Contact poison insecticides, being the one of most interest, kill following external bodily contact.

The design of an aerosol insecticide should depend on the nature of the target organism. it is possible to design a “general insect” killing aerosol but such product are by their very nature a compromise, and are thus inferior to products specially formulated for use against specific targets. Certain formulations which are extremely effective against flying insects may give poor control of crewing insects and, conversely, crawling insect killing aerosols may have little action against flying insect. Aerosol insecticides used against flying insect are specifically formulated to induce immediate paralysis and knockdown of flies, mosquitoes and wasp ect. Knockdown follows from the paralytic action of an insecticide christened on insect muscles responsible for flight. These insecticides may be applied as a spray if liquid or in suspension, as a dust or as a gas.

The qualities and performance of aerosol insecticides are largely dependent on the properties of its constitutuents and the ratio of these constitutuents in the final products. Records shows that insecticides were used as long as 1000 B.C. However, they were more often useless than useful since they were based on legend and superstition rather than on scientific knowledge. The essential property of early insecticides was a disagreeable or dour rather than the toxic or poisonous nature.

Aerosol insecticides from available local raw materials must meet the present need for a high standard of performance so as to cater satisfactorily for the needs of the society. Besides, the insecticides produced should conform to be amendments in the federal insecticide, fungicides and Rodenticide Act of 1972 and that of the federal environmental protection Agency Act of 1994. The overview of the conformity to the Acts is that the insecticides produced should be effective and environmental friendly.

The purpose of this work is to seek alternative local inputs for the development, formulation and production of aerosol insecticide, as well as testing of the complete aerosol insecticide that will effectively complete with other aerosol insecticides made from imported raw materials or synthetic raw materials.

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Discussion


An attempt has been made to seek atom alternative local raw materials for the development, formulation and production of aerosol insecticides as well as testing of the complete aerosol insecticide that would complete effectively with other aerosol insecticides made from imported raw materials.

The major constituents of the insecticide dichlor- dimethyl vinyl phosphate, allethrine, piperinal (for the synthetic type and citronellal, rotenone and also piperinal ( for the natural type). All these materials were obtained locally. They search for some of these chemicals used in the development of the aerosol insecticides posed a lot of problems, as they were not easy to be found in the market. Some of them, for example rotenone and citronellal, had to be extracted from plants through rigorous processes. They were extracted using many solvents such as chlorobenzene, anunyl alcohol mineral oil, ethanol etc. also, some of the insecticide producing company found it very difficult to disclose their formulation method for the fear of competitive market and adulteration.

From the literature review the chemistry of some are as follows;-

  1. Rotenone (tubatoxin) with C23 H2206 as its chemical formula is a pentacyclic compound that is soluble in the either alchohol and other organic solvents. It is toxic by ingestion and also irritant to the skin.
  2. Piperinal- piperonyl aldehyde, heliotropin 3,4- methylenedioxy benzaldehyde with the chemical formula C6 H3 (CH2) 00) CH0 (bicyclic) acts as synergist.
  3. Alletherin with the chemical formula C19 H26 03 is a generic name for 2- allyl – 4 hydroxy –3- methyl –2- cyclopentene –1- one. It is an ester of chrysamthemummonocarboxylic acide. It is moderately toxic by ingestion. It is a synthetic insectcide raw material and a synergist.
  4. Citronellal (C10 H18 0); this is an optically active compound which occures in citronellal oil. It is an aldehyde, reduction with sodium amalgam converts into the alchol citronellol, C10 H20 0 and oxidate gives citronellic acide, C10 H18 02.

The production of the insecticides from the local source was a viable one. The products proved very effective when tested on a variety of insects.

This is because the insects that come in contact with the insecticides are drastically affected. It penetrates directly into the blood of insects through the spiracles of the respiratory system into the trachiea leading to the death of the insects.

Also it was still observed that some insects that did not come in direct contact with the insecticides were also drastically affected. This is because, the insecticides when sprayed, diffuses and circulate the entire room/area where it was sprayed. Thus all the insects that perceived it were affected.

On the other hand the odour of the insecticides activities makes the insect to run away for their lives because of the product, care was taken since some of the ingredients were very inflammable. The act of counting the number of insects was another problem encountered confirmatory test was another problem encountered in the experiment. It was very testing. Also, storage of the insecticides develop was another problem faced in the research work. As the mixture is highly inflammable, getting air tight condition in the container for the insecticide was not easily over ridden.

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