Determination Of The Sedimentological And Geochemical Characteristics Of The Sediment In The Niger Delta Basin

Project and Seminar Material for Geology

Determination Of The Sedimentological And Geochemical Characteristics Of The Sediment In The Niger Delta Basin

Chapter One


The mineralogical and chemical composition of clastic sedimentary rocks are controlled by various factors, including (1) the composition of their source rocks, (2) environmental parameters influencing the weathering of source rocks (e.g., atmosphericchemistry, temperature, rainfall and topography), (3) duration of weathering (4)transportation mechanisms of clastic material from source region to depocenters, (5)depositional environment (e.g., marine versus fresh water), and (6) post-depositional processes (e.g., diagenesis, metamorphism) (Hayashi et al., 1997). Numerousinvestigations are substantiating the above aspects pertaining to genesis of both ancient andmodern siliciclastic sediments (e.g., Dickenson et al., 1983; Nesbitt and Young, 1982, 1984; Bhatia, 1983; Roser and Korsch, 1988; McCann, 1991; Condie et al., 1992; Condie, 1993; McLennan et al., 1993; Nesbitt et al., 1996; Cullers, 2000; Hessler and Lowe 2006; Nagarajan et al., 2007; Spalletti et al., 2008). Several studies have also been focused on the identification of palaeotectonic settings of provenances based on geochemical signatures of siliciclastic rocks (e.g., Dickinson and Suczek, 1979; Bhatia, 1983; Bhatia and Crook, 1986; Roser and Korsch 1986; McLennan and Taylor, 1991).

Among the terrigenous sedimentary rocks, shales are considered to represent the average crustal composition of the provenance much better than any other siliclastic rocks (e.g., McCulloch and Wasserburg, 1978). Shales retain most of the mineral constituents of the source and their bulk chemistry preserves the near-original signature of the provenance and more faithfully reveal palaeoweathering conditions (e.g., Pettijohn, 1975; Graver and Scott, 1995).

The present note examines the geochemistry of sediment from part of the subsurface Niger Delta Basin province, attempts to constrain there paleo redox and tectonic setting and provenance. Owing to limitations of analytical facilities, the present work is based on chemical analyses data of major and select trace elements of the investigated sediment of the study area.

Complete Material Available

Determination Of The Sedimentological And Geochemical Characteristics Of The Sediment In The Niger Delta Basin

Project Material Download

3,000 Naira

The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…

Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Determination Of The Sedimentological And Geochemical Characteristics Of The Sediment In The Niger Delta Basin

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply

  Contact Our Help Desk

You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search

Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria

Determination Of The Sedimentological And Geochemical Characteristics Of The Sediment In The Niger Delta Basin


This research material “Determination Of The Sedimentological And Geochemical Characteristics Of The Sediment In The Niger Delta Basin” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”. is only providing this material “Determination Of The Sedimentological And Geochemical Characteristics Of The Sediment In The Niger Delta Basin” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

How to defend your research work

This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “Determination Of The Sedimentological And Geochemical Characteristics Of The Sediment In The Niger Delta Basin“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “Determination Of The Sedimentological And Geochemical Characteristics Of The Sediment In The Niger Delta Basin” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Chapter Five


Provenance of the Sediments. Based on major oxidesmost of the sample plots in the fields were felsic igneous provenances suggesting high content of silica from an acid rock most probably granite or gneiss or dacite or any acidic (felsic) igneous rock.

The provenance and prevalent conditions of deposition from various elemental ratios indicate that the Th/U ratiohas an average of 4.1 which is very close to that of upper continental crust of 3.8. The high ratios of Th/Sc and Zr/Sc indicate a slight input of felsic materials from recycled sed-imentary provenance. Higher abundances of incompatible elements like Th indicate felsic rather than mafic sources. Elevated values of thorium with respect to uranium may imply a felsic source. It will be observed that most values for the Al2O3/TiO2 ratio fall between 15 and 70 (the range for igneous rock) which is an indication that the source rock is felsic or acidic igneous rock such as granite, granodiorite, rhyolite, dacite, or aplite. Th/Sc values for the analyzed samples were in the range of 0.83–2.83, implying a felsic igneous provenance. The same applies for the Th/Co ratio as most of the values are above 0.27 and less than 19.5 (Th/Sc and Th/Co values for felsic rocks are 0.84–20.05 and 0.27– 19.5, resp.). Thus the source of the rock weathered to give the sediment is a felsic or acidic igneous rock, probably granite. Th/Co versus La/Sc logarithmic plot shows that the samples are sourced from felsic or acidic silicic rocks, and very few of the samples tend towards intermediate provenance.

Provenance from REE and negative EU anomaly points to the fact that average REE pattern of the sediments is interpreted to reflect the average upper continental crust. Coupled with a negative Eu anomaly, conclusions can be drawn that shallow, intercrustal differentiation involving pla-gioclase differentiation (through either melting or fractional differentiation) must be a fundamental process in removal of feldspar from a felsic melt. The LREE enrichment as well as relatively flat HREE pattern also confirms felsic source rock. T he relative REE patterns and Eu anomaly size have also been utilized to deduce sources of sedimentary rocks [20, 37]. Mafic rocks contain low LREE/HREE ratios and tend not to contain Eu anomalies, whereas more felsic rocks usually contain higher LREE/HREE ratios and negative Eu anomalies [38]. A negative Eu anomaly is a confirmation of the sediment’s provenance from felsic sources. Thus from the enrichment LREE or higher LREE/HREE, we can conclude that the provenance of the sediments is felsic rock.

Tectonic Settings. From major oxides it can be concludedthat the tectonic setting of the Niger delta is active continental margin and this confirms the cretaceous rift systems of West and Central Africa. The rift system extends for over 4000 km from Nigeria northwards into Niger and Libya and eastwards to Sudan and Kenya. This cretaceous rift system forms a trough in which those sediments are deposited. The trace elements confirmed the tectonic settings of the sediments as active continental margins. The trivariate plots of La-Th-Sc, Th-Sc-Zr/10, and Th-Co-Zr/10 all register the provenance of the sediments to be active continental margin. The Th/Sc versus Zr/Sc diagram after McLennan et al. [14], confirms the zone of sediment recycling in upper crust input.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.