Determination Of Noise Pollution Base From Welding And Fabrication Workshop In Makurdi Metropolis

Project and Seminar Material for Physics

Determination Of Noise Pollution Base From Welding And Fabrication Workshop In Makurdi Metropolis


Abstract


Determination of noise pollution base line of welding and fabrication workshop was carried out at some designated welding and fabrication workshops. These measurements was carried out in 10 different locations using the digital sound level meter of model 40773L. The sound pressure Level (SPL) was measured for every 2 minutes for 2hrs (120mins) and the equivalent noise level (Leq), Percentile (L10, L90) and the Noise Pollution Level (LNP) was also calculated. Fast Fourier Transformation was used to interpulate between minutes to give value in seconds and transformed measured values of time to frequency domain. Graphs were also plotted for noise against time and for power against the transformed measured values which are in frequency domain. The result of the research show that the equivalent continuous noise level in the selected site are SITE A: 94.74Db, SITE B: 89.82dB, SITE C: 92.90dB, SITE D: 90.03dB, SITE E: 87.10dB, SITE F: 87.86dB, SITE G: 91.33dB, SITE H: 92.86dB, SITE I: 89.24dB, and SITE J: 89.02dB, showing that some sites are noisier than others and the sum of the average values of noise data in welding and fabrication workshop in makurdi metropolis is 90.50dB Which is above the FEPA recommended values (90dBA) for 8hrs exposure time, which result to the possible health hazard of the noise level highlighted which include Annoyance, Cardiovascular disturbance, impalement of task performance and induced hearing loss.

Appropriate suggestions have been made on how to prevent these hazards e.g use of ear muffs.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Certification
  • Declaration
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Background of the Study

  • 1.1 Welding
  • 1.2 Significance of the study
  • 1.3 Scope and limitation
  • 1.4 Aim and objectives of study
  • 1.4.1 Aim of the study
  • 1.4.2 Objectives of the study
  • 1.5 Justification of the research

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Noise Characterization
  • 2.1.1 Spectral Characteristics
  • 2.1.2 Physical characteristics of noise
  • 2.1.2 Pitch
  • 2.1.2.2 Loudness
  • 2.1.2.3 Quality or Timbre
  • 2.1.2.4 Notes
  • 2.2 Signal and Noise
  • 2.2.1 Ways of calculating the SNR
  • 2.3 Sources of Noise
  • 2.3.1 Industrial
  • 2.3.2 Traffic Source
  • 2.3.3 Ambient Source
  • 2.3.3.1 Fixed Source
  • 2.3.3.2 Neighborhood Source
  • 2.4 Adverse Health Effects of Noise
  • 2.4.1 Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
  • 2.4.2 Impairment of Task Performance
  • 2.4.3 Annoyance
  • 2.4.4 Sleep Disturbance
  • 2.4.5 Cardiovascular Disturbance
  • 2.5 Industrial Noise control
  • 2.5.1 Noise Control Techniques
  • 2.5.1.1 Noise Control at Source
  • 2.5.1.2 Control in the transmission path
  • 2.5.1.3 Using protection equipment
  • 2.6 Noise Quality Standard
  • 2.6.1 Noise Exposure Standard
  • 2.7 Fourier Transformation
  • 2.7.1 Fourier Transform
  • 2.7.1.2 Some Basic Properties of the Fourier Transform
  • 2.7.2 The Fast Fourier Transform
  • 2.9 Measurement of Ambient Noise Level in the Vicinity of Selected Hospital in Makurdi Metropolis
  • 2.9.1 Introduction
  • 2.9.2 Methodology
  • 2.9.2.1 Material
  • 2.9.2.2 Method
  • 2.9.3 Conclusion

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Material
  • 3.1.1 Research Site
  • 3.2 Method
  • 3.2.1 Measuring instruments
  • 3.2.2 Digital Sound Level Meter
  • 3.3 Measurement Procedure

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation of Results

  • 4.1 Interpretations of Sites
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix A
  • Appendix B
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables

List of Figures


  • Figure 2.1:Pure, simple, periodic sinusoidal sound Singal
  • Figure 3.1: Digital Sound Level Meter (SLM)
  • Figure 4.1: Equivalent noise level against time at Site A
  • Figure 4.2: Transformation of noise from time to frequency domain in Site A
  • Figure 4.3: Equivalent noise level against time at Site B
  • Figure 4.4: Transformation of noise from time to frequency domain in Site B
  • Figure 4.5: Equivalent noise level against time at Site C
  • Figure 4.6: Transformation of noise from time to frequency domain in Site C
  • Figure 4.7: Equivalent noise level against time at Site D
  • Figure 4.8: Transformation of noise from time to frequency domain in Site D
  • Figure 4.9: Equivalent noise level against time Site E
  • Figure 4.10: Transformation of noise from time to frequency domain in Site E
  • Figure 4.11: Equivalent noise level against time at Site F
  • Figure 4.12: Transformation of noise from time to frequency domain in Site F
  • Figure 4.13: Equivalent noise level against time at Site G
  • Figure 4.14: Transformation of noise from time to frequency domain in Site G
  • Figure 4.15: Equivalent noise level against time at Site H
  • Figure 4.16: Transformation of noise from time to frequency domain in Site H
  • Figure 4.17: Equivalent noise level against time at Site I
  • Figure 4.18: Transformation of noise from time to frequency domain in Site I
  • Figure 4.19:Equivalent noise level against time at Site J
  • Figure 4.20: Transformation of noise from time to frequency domain in Site J

List of Tables


  • Table 2.1: The noise levels from variety of sources in industry
  • Table 2.2: Estimated sound power conversion factors for section common noise source
  • Table 2.3: Correspondence between noise level of domestic appliance and different degree of annoyance
  • Table 2.4: Recommended allowance ambient sound (rating) levels for various land use type districts
  • Table 2.5: Maximum Permissible Noise Level for General Environment
  • Table 3.1: List of welding and fabrication workshop monitored for the determining of noise pollution
  • Table 4.1: Average values of noise level data of Welding and Fabrication Workshops in Makurdi Metropolis

Chapter One


1.0 Background of the Study

Noise is derived from the Latin word “Nausea”, implying unwanted sound or sound that is loud, unpleasant or unexpected (Birgitta and Lindvell, 1995). But according to Goines and Hayler, 2007, noise pollution is defined as a form of air pollution that is an audible, unwanted sound that poses a threat to a person’s health and well being. Noise originates from human activities especially the urbanization and the development of transport and industry.

Though the urban population is much more affected by such pollution however, small towns/villages along side roads or industries are also victims of this problem (Birgitta and Lindvell, 1995). Noise is becoming an increasingly omnipresent, yet unnoticed form of pollution even in developed countries (Birgitta and Lindvell, 1995). Noise is measured in decibel units and is denoted by dB. In work place areas such as factories, 85dB(A) noise is permitted for 8hr but for environmental point of view there should be 75dB(A) for day light hours and 70dB(A) for night time (Occupational Noise National Standard,2004) and 90dB for 8hours exposure was the recommended value in accordance to Federal Environment Protection Agency;FEPA (copy right© Nigeria Government ,2005)

Though noise pollution is a slow and subtle killer yet very little efforts have been made to ameliorate the same. It is along with other types of pollution has become a hazard to quality life (Kieman, 1997). Even relatively low level of noise affect human health adversely (Kieman, 1997). It may cause hypertension, disrupt sleep and can hinder cognitive development in children. The effects of excess noise could be so severe that either a permanent loss of memory or psychiatric disorder (Band, 1996).

There are several works or activities which could produce noise. Hence, this study was focused on “DETERMINING NOISE POLLUTION BASELINE OF WELDING AND FABRICATION WORKSHOPS IN MAKUDI METROPOLIS.


1.1 Welding

Welding is a fabrication (the building of metal structures by cutting, bending and assembling process) or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics by causing coalescence (ASM, 2003)

This is often done by melting the work pieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material that cool to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat or by itself to produce the weld (Cary and Helzer, 2005). Some of the best known welding method includes shielded metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding, gas metal arc welding, Hux-coreal arc welding, submerged arc welding, Electros leg welding (ASM, 2003). Many different energy source can be used for welding including a gas flame, an electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, friction and ultrasound, while often an industrial process. Welding may be performed in many different environment including in open air, under water, and in outer space (ASM, 2003).

Welding is a potentially hazardous undertaking and precaution are required to avoid damage, inhalation of poisonous gases and fumes and exposure to intense ultraviolent radiation (Cary and Hezler, 2005).


1.2 Significance of the Study

The research will provide information on determination of noise pollution baseline of welding and fabrication workshops in Makurdi Metropolis, likely impact on people, workers and it will equally encourage policy makers to give attention to the continuous rising problem of welding and fabrication noise level with the view of eliminating or reducing the degration of air quality caused by noise pollution baseline of welding and fabrication and thereby its adverse effects on both the staff/workers and people around.


1.3 Scope and Limitation

The study is designed to determine noise pollution baseline of welding and fabrication workshops in Makurdi metropolis using a digital sound level meter model. This study will be carried out in some selected workshops in Makurdi due to time factor and financial constraints.


1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

1.4.1 Aim of the Study

The aim of this research work is to :

Determine the noise pollution baseline of welding and fabrication workshops in Makurdi Metropolis

1.4.2 Objectives of the Study

Specific objectives of the study include accomplished:

  1. Identify major sources of noise pollution baseline of welding and fabrication workshops in Makurdi Metropolis and its adverse effect on the workers and the environment
  2. Measure noise level in the selected welding and fabrication workshops in Makurdi metropolis
  3. To determine the noise pattern in that environment
  4. Compare the noise level in the selected workshops with standard set by regulatory bodies.
  5. Provide a database formulation on noise pollution issue and to serve as a reference material in environmental impact studies (EIS)

1.5 Justification of the Research

Due to the adverse effect of noise pollution from welding and fabrication workshops on the general public and workers, this research seeks to make available relevant knowledge about noise pollution in the selected areas, providing resource information about its effects and effective control measures.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

A sound level meter was used in measuring the noise emitted from welding and fabrication workshops in makurdi metropolis. The assessment of noise level in welding and fabrication workshops in makurdi metropolis has revealed that the equivalent noise level in the selected sites are as follows: are SITE A: 94.74Db, SITE B: 89.82dB, SITE C: 92.90dB, SITE D: 90.03dB, SITE E: 87.10dB, SITE F: 87.86dB, SITE G: 91.33dB, SITE H: 92.86dB, SITE I: 89.24dB, and SITE J: 89.02dB, which are approximate, below or above the Federal Environment Protection Agency (FEPA) safety standard of 90dB for 8 hrs exposure time and these has adverse effects on the workers and neigbhours like annoyance, cardiovascular disturbance, impairment of task performance, induced hearing loss and these has been seen to constitute noise pollution to the environment.

In conclusion, the noise pollution baseline of welding and fabrication workshop in makurdi metropolis of Benue state has an average value of 90.50 dB which shows that it is above the FEPA recommended value (90dB) for 8 hours of exposure; hence it is essential to adopt the FEPA recommendation value of 90dB for 8 hours of exposure.


5.2 Recommendation

Tackling the problem of noise pollution in welding and fabrication workshop is a great task that cannot be left for the public alone as individuals. While the researcher understands that individuals that make up the public have their role to play in safeguarding their health, the government also has the responsibility of creating the right environment for these to take place.

The following are my recommendations.

  1. The FEPA recommendation of 90dBA for 8 hours exposure time should be adopted and exposure time should be reduced for the workshop that reads level above 90dB
  2. Machine building should be constructed with sound absorbing materials to absorb parts of the noise produced inside the building
  3. Sound proof trees should be planted to areas where welding and fabrication workshops are located
  4. Welding and fabrication workshop or industrial layout should be located outside the major towns
  5. Workers in such an environment should be enlightened on the effect of noise to health and be advised to use ear muffs to avoid health hazards.

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