Determination Of Some Groundwater Quality In Six Communities In Orlu Local Government

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Determination Of Some Groundwater Quality In Six Communities In Orlu Local Government


The ground water quality of some communities of Orlu zone, Imo State was determined to ascertain compliance with recommended standards by World Health Organization (WHO), National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC), United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) AND AUSTRALIA.

All the parameters were analyzed in accordance to American Public Health Association. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. The analysis revealed the following; pH ( 5.4-6.8), Conductivity (12.5-28.4µS/cm), Total Hardness(18.0-34.0mg/l), Chloride(9.0-65.0mg/l) Sulphate (0-15mg/l), phosphate (30.4-204.5mg/l), fluoride(0.01-0.21mg/l), Silica (0.4-26.5mg/l), Magnesium (3.0-9.0mg/l), Potassium (1.2-6.3mg/l), Total alkalinity (15.050.0mg/l), Iron (0.20-0.55mg/l), Nitrate (4.0-18.2mg/l) most of the parameters conform with WHO/NAFDAC/USEPA/ AUSTRALIAN standards while few are slightly below and above the standards. It is recommended that regular determination of the ground water quality should be done to ascertain the level of contamination.

Key words: Ground water, parameter, Assessment, standard, Contamination.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Problem statement
  • 1.3 Aim/objective of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Scope of the study
  • 1.6 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Origin of groundwater
  • 2.2 Quality of water and health
  • 2.3 Water quality standards
  • 2.4 Ground water contamination
  • 2.5 Groundwater contaminants
  • 2.5.1 Nitrate
  • 2.5.2 Chloride
  • 2.5.3 Sulphate
  • 2.5.4 Hardness
  • 2.5.5 Conductivity
  • 2.5.6 pH
  • 2.5.7 Phosphate
  • 2.5.8 Silica
  • 2.5.9 Fluoride
  • 2.5.10 Iron in drinking water
  • 2.6 Pysiography of the study area
  • 2.7 Geology of the study area

Chapter Three

3.0 Material and Method

  • 3.1 Study area
  • 3.2 Materials/reagents
  • 3.3 Equipment
  • 3.4 Sample collection
  • 3.5 Sample analysis
  • 3.5.1 Determination of pH
  • 3.5.2 Determination of conductivity
  • 3.5.3 Determination of sulphate
  • 3.5.4 Determination of silica
  • 3.5.5 Determination of total alkalinity
  • 3.5.6 Determination of fluoride
  • 3.5.7 Determination of iron
  • 3.5.8 Determination of phosphate
  • 3.5.9 Determination of potassium
  • 3.5.10 Determination of magnesium
  • 3.5.11 Determination of total hardness
  • 3.5.12 Determination of chloride
  • 3.5.13 Determination of nitrate

Chapter Four

4.0 Result

  • 4.1 Table of range and mean of physio chemical character of the water samples compare with WHO, NAFDAC, USEPA and AUSTRALIA standards
  • 4.2 Discussion of result

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Water plays an essential role in human life. Although statistics, the WHO reports that approximately 36% of urban and 65% of rural Orlu zone will be without access to safe drinking water. It is even more important for the human being as they depend upon it for food production, industrial and waste disposal, as well as cultural requirement. According to WHO organization, about 80% of all the diseases in human beings are caused by water.

Ground water is ultimate and most suitable fresh water resource for human consumption in both urban as well as rural areas. The importance of ground water for existence of human society cannot be overemphasized. There are several local government areas in Orlu zone where more than 90% population isdependent on groundwater for drinking and other purposes.

Ground water is also frequently used as the alternative source for agricultural and industrial sector.The groundwater chemistry is controlled by the composition of its recharge components as well as by geological and hydrological variations within the aquifer. Many a time ground water carries higher mineral contents than surface water, because there is slow circulation and longer period of contact with sediment materials in case of groundwater. The problems of groundwater quality are much more acute in the areas which are densely populated, thickly industrialized and have shallow groundwater tables.

The rapid growth of urban areas has further affected groundwater quality due to overexploitation of resources and improper waste disposal practices. Hence, there is always a need for and concern over the protection and management of groundwater quality. Thus, in this paper an attempt has been made to assess the physical and chemical properties of groundwater.

Ground water is a key resource supporting many aspects of ORLU ZONE’s way of life. It replenishes our streams and rivers and provides fresh water for irrigation, industry, and communities. In addition, ground water is the source of drinking water for 95% of ORLU ZONE citizens. As ORLU ZONE’s population grows, so does the need for clean, usable ground water.

Department of Environmental Water Quality is responsible for protecting the quality of ground water in ORLU ZONE and relies on a combination of programs to protect ground water from pollution, clean up degraded ground water, and monitor and assess ground water quality. Department of Environmental Water Quality’s ground water policy is to maintain and protect the existing high quality of ORLU ZONE’s ground water and restore degraded ground water where feasible to support ground water beneficial uses. Department of Environmental Water Quality partners with the ORLU ZONE Department of Agriculture (ISDA),

ORLU ZONE Department of Water Resources (IDWR), and many other state, local, and private agencies, organizations, businesses, and individuals to achieve this goal.

1.2 Problem Statement

  1. At this time, groundwater stresses are growing due to population growth and urbanization, resource development (particularly in the energy sector) climate change impact, agricultural intensification and practices, contaminated sites and more.
  2. These stresses mean that local groundwater supplies may be at risk due to the lack of knowledge about this critical resource.
  3. Also, over the decades, no or little attention has been given to geologic input on the quality assessment of groundwater.

Hence this work is designed to assess the quality status of groundwater in Orlu zone, Imo state bearing in mind the natural and anthropogenic inputs.

1.3 Aim / Objective Of The Study

The goals/objective of this study is to:

  1. To determine the number of sampled sites and reliable groundwater-quality analyses in the study area,
  2. Summarize general water properties and the concentrations of selected inorganic and organic constituents,
  3. Map sample locations and identify sites where concentrations exceed critical values,
  4. Interpret the sources of chemicals found in groundwater,

1.4 Significance Of The Study

Groundwater resource plays significant role in the social and economic life of the people in terms of domestic, industrial and agricultural use. Hence, this research is of paramount importance considering the fact that high percentage of contaminants in the water has become a serious problem to man and the society.

Therefore, this work will assess and determine the physicochemical nature, the most relevant controls on the water quality, and the dominant chemical processes which control the groundwater composition in the study area.

1.5 Scope Of The Study

The scope of this work includes the following:

  1. Collection of one (1) groundwater sample from each of the six local Government Areas of Orlu geopolitical zone of Imo State.
  2. Analysis of the water samples on pH conductivity, sulphate, phosphate, chloride, silica, fluoride, total hardness, total alkalinity, iron, magnesium, potassium and nitrate.

1.6 Definition Of Terms

Groundwater (or ground water):

Is the water present beneath Earth’s surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water.


The standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind; the degree of excellence of something.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

From the groundwater quality analysis carried out in Orlu Zone, Imo State; the pH values of the water samples are slightly below the WHO/NAFDAC/USEPA/AUSTRALIA range for pH in portable water. Phosphate was found to be high in some areas, silica is below the Australian standard, some nitrates are within the WHO standard and some are high, the iron concentration of water samples are generally high in the whole areas. While conductivity, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, total alkalinity, magnesium, potassium and fluoride concentrations are within the WHO/NAFDAC/SUEPA/AUSTRALIA permissible limit for drinking water.

5.2 Recommendations

It is recommended that regular ground water quality assessment should be done in order to know the extent of contamination of water used by communities.

All public water supplies must abide by the standards of WHO/NAFDAC/USEPA and AUSTRALIA standards to avoid health issues in the consumption of the water.

Public alertness on the risk of setting of waste dumping sites underground sewage tanks etc. close to borehole and the enlightenment of the populace on the danger of consumption of untreated water from shallow wells should be done by the government.

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…

Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card

CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Determination Of Some Groundwater Quality In Six Communities In Orlu Local Government

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply

  Contact Our Help Desk

Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search

List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.