The Effects Of Senna Tora Leaves Extract On The Blood Glucose Levels Of The Diabetic Albino Rats (A Focus On Diabetes Mellitus)

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

The Effects Of Senna Tora Leaves Extract On The Blood Glucose Levels Of The Diabetic Albino Rats (A Focus On Diabetes Mellitus)


Abstract


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of senna tora leaves extract on the blood glucose levels of the diabetic albino rats. The blood samples were collected from the retro-bulba plexus of the retina of the eye of the rats for biochemical analysis. The rats in groups 2-5 were fed rat chow and 500mg/kg BW of each of the vegetable extract, respectively. The rat groups in groups 6-9 were fed with alloxan induced diabetic rats. Blood samples were analyzed to determine blood glucose concentrations, serum total cholesterol concentration, serum triglyceride; serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol; serum HDL-cholesterol. The results of this work would be useful to both nutritionists and dietitians to counsel individuals on the efficacy of the vegetables and their extracts for managing diabetes.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which blood vessels of glucose (sugar) are high because the body does not produce or properly use insulin. There are two major forms of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes develops when the pancreas does not produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body cell resist insulin’s effect (Microsoft Encarta, 2009). This condition leads to elevated levels of blood glucose. The normal range of blood glucose level for blood glucose level is between 70-110mg/dl. Insulin is a hormone that helps to maintain normal blood glucose level by making the body’s cell absorbs glucose (sugar) so that it can be as a source of energy. In people with diabetes glucose levels build up in the blood and urine causing excessive urination, thirst, hunger and problems with fats and protein metabolism because the body cannot convert glucose into energy, it begins to break down stored fats for fuel. This produces increasing amounts of acidic compounds in the blood called ketone bodies which interfere with cellular respiration energy producing process in cells. Alloxan induces diabetes mellitus in rats. Alloxan, a beta cytotoxin, induces diabetes in a wide variety of animal species through damage of insulin secreting cell. In these animals, with characteristic similar to type 1 diabetes in humans. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are common complications of diabetes mellitus. (Rerup, C. C. 1999).

Senna tora (originally described by Linne as cassia tora) is a legume in the subfamily caesalpiniodeae. It grows wild in most of the tropics and is considered a weed in many places. Its native range is not well known but probably South Asia. It is often confused with Chinese senna or sickle pods obtusifolia. If it is given a distinct common name at all, it is called sickle wild sensitive plant (nature serve, 200). It has a widely ranging tropical and the agro climatic conditions, which are conducive for introducing and domesticating new and exotic plant varieties. The use of the plants, plant extracts and pure compounds isolated from natural sources provided the foundation to modern pharmaceutical compounds. An ethno botanical search on fine species senna within and around Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria showed their relevance in the local herbal medicine. In the recent study, screening for hypoglycemic activity of the extract of senna tora was conducted to provide support for the use of this plant as traditional medicine. Phytochemical screening provides knowledge of the chemical constituents of this not only for the discovery of new therapeutic agents, but also for information in discovering new sources of other materials. The uses of senna tora include the following, used as liver stimulant, mild laxative, heart tonic, used in treatment of fever, used to treat eczema and dermatomycosis, etc.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Increasing incidence of chronic diet related non communicable diseases (NCDS) is one of the health challenges world over (Nnam, Onyechi & Madukwe, 2012). The diseases which include cardiovascular diseases (CVDS), diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and cancers are increasingly becoming public health problems in Nigeria (Nnam etal.,2012). NCDs account for 60% of global deaths. It is predicted that by 2020 NCDS would account for 73% deaths and 60% disease burden (Ene-Obong, 2010). The causes are linked to poverty, globalization and adoption of western dietary patterns.These are facilitated by advertisement for consumption of unhealthy foods and lack of physical exercise (Onyechi and Ibeanu, 2010; Nnam et al., 2012). Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic non communicable diseases. Diabetes is a serious complex chronic condition and a major cause of ill health worldwide (Willel, 2012). This metabolic disorder is characterized by hyperglycemia and disturbances of carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. These could be as a result of an absolute or relative lack of the hormone insulin (Sathanaraynan, Thomas & 4Sekher, 2009; Rajjkiran, Nusrath & Sujatta, 2011). Currently, there are over 150 million diabetic patients worldwide. The number is likely to increase to 300 million or more by the year 2025 (Rajikeran et al., 2011). No modern medicine has reached the satisfactory level in the treatment of diabetes. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) (2013) reported that diabetes is no longer a disease of the poor as four out of five people (80%) have diabetes in the world live in low and middle income countries. A country by country summary table by IDF 2012 showed that 3,165.31 million Nigerians between the ages of 20 and 79 years have diabetes, while 2,532.25million Nigerians living with the conditions are unaware and undiagnosed. Nigeria lost 88.681million persons in 2012 due to diabetes related illnesses and has a 4.83% comparative prevalence according to World Health Organization (WHO) standard. As the global burden of diabetes accelerates the call to address the world wide care of diabetics intensifies daily. It has been estimated that by 2025 the incidence of diabetes mellitus would double. There are several drugs for the treatment of diabetes. They however have prominent side effects (Gupta, Medratia, Singh & Sharm, 2006) and most often out of reach for most diabetics. The next option is dietary treatment using foods that are locally available with hypoglycemic effect (Onyechi and Ibeanu, 2010). There has been increasing demand
for the use of natural plant products with anti diabetic activity (Fuentes, Sagua, Morale & Bongue, 2005). This is because of their wide biological activities, high safety margins and low costs (Fuentes et al., 2005). Use of plant products to treat diabetes mellitus is of growing interest as most plant foods contain many bioactive substances with therapeutic potentials. Many leafy vegetables and their extracts are effective in the treatment of many non-communicable diseases (NCDs) (Fuentes etal., 2005; Nnam etal., 2012). WHO also recommends the evaluation of traditional plant extracts, for the treatment of diabetes as such extracts have fewer side effects and possess better glycemic control over the synthetic medicines (WHO, 2007). Nnam etal. (2012) reported that some leafy vegetables have medicinal properties and can be used for the sick and convalescence. Anecdotal evidence suggests that there is antidiabetic activity in Hibiscuscannabinus (rama), Adansoniadigitata (baobab), Sesamum indicum (karkashi) and Cassiatora( tabsa) leaves. The leaves are major soup vegetables in different parts of northern Nigeria where they are grown and utilized. The present study focused on the scientific investigation of the nutrient, phytochemical composition and anti diabetic activity of Hibiscuscannabinus(rama), Adansoniadigitata[baobab], Sesamumindicum(karkashi) and Cassiatora(tabsa) leaves. The problem confronting the study is to undertake the determination of the effects of senna tora leaves extract on the blood glucose levels of the diabetic albino rats.


1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Research

Therefore the goal of the study is to:

  1. To determining the blood glucose levels of normal and Alloxan induced diabetic rats.
  2. To determine the effects of senna tora leaves extract on the blood glucose levels of the diabetic albino rats.
  3. To compare values before and after induction with Alloxan and senna tora leaves

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study shall be useful to sciencetist and shall provide useful information on the determination of the effects of senna tora leaves extract on the blood glucose levels of the diabetic albino rats.


1.5 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the determination of the effects of senna tora leaves extract on the blood glucose levels of the diabetic albino rats.


1.6 Limitation of the Study

The study was confronted by logistics and geographical factors


1.7 Definition of Terms

Senatora Leave Defined

Senna tora (originally described by Linnaeus as Cassia tora) is a dicotlegume in the subfamilyCaesalpinioideae. Its name is derived from its Sinhala name Tora (තෝර). It grows wild in most of the tropics and is considered a weed in many places. Its native range is in Central America. Its most common English name is Sickle Senna.[2] or Sickle Wild sensitive-plant. Other common names include sickle pod, tora, coffee pod, tovara, chakvad, thakara in Malayalam and foetid cassia.

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Conclusion


Hibiscus cannabinus, Adonsonia, digitata, Sesamum indicum and Cassia tora leaves have much potentials for human food and for management of diabetes mellitus. The vegetables contained high levels of antidioxidant vitamin, minerals and phytochemicals that could be useful in the management of diabetes and other non communicable diseases. The antinutrient and toxicant levels of the vegetables were within the safe limits prescribed by WHO/FAO. The methanol extracts of Hibiscus cannabinus, Adonsonia, digitata, Sesamum indicum and Cassia tora leaves in various doses reduced blood glucose concentrations and improved lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The vegetables could therefore be used in preparation of diets for management of diabetes and some other diet related non – communicable diseases because oftheir rich nutrient and antioxidant phytochemical constituents.


Recommendations


The following Recommendations were made based on the results of the study:

  1. The results of this work would be useful to both nutritionists and dietitians to counsel individuals on the efficacy of the vegetables and their extracts for managing diabetes.
  2. Human studies are needed to confirm the results obtained in the study.
  3. Doses of 500 and 1000mg/kgbody weight of Hibiscus cannabinus, Adonsonia, digitata, and Cassia tora leaf extracts need further investigation with humans.
  4. Studies to determine the portion sizes of the veget ables to maintain desired effects on humans are strongly recommended.
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