Determination Of The Causes, Effects Of Water Pollution And Its Possible Control

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Determination Of The Causes, Effects Of Water Pollution And Its Possible Control


Abstract


The study aims at assessing the causes and effects of water pollution and its possible control in Nigeria. The study reviewed water pollution contextual definitions, sources of water pollution consider, classification and categories of water pollution were assessed, causes of water pollution scholarly contributions were evaluated and mitigating control measures as stated by scholars were also highlighted in this studies. From the study, water pollution experts globally are more concerned with its control measures rather than sources, causes and categories of water pollution. The study recommends human behavior approach and techniques in controlling water pollution especially in developing world should be implemented. Solid waste from households, industries and agricultural products should be properly controlled through proper campaign with the aid of public lecture, billboards to convey messages, visual broadcasting and audio broadcasting and with the aid and support of pamphlets. Sewage from both households & industries should be properly monitored by government by enacting policies for the industrialists to treat effluents before discharging in to water bodies. This could be achieved through organizing environmentally friendly conference, workshops, seminars and it should be organize periodically so as to create avenue for sharing new ideas and methodologies interchanged by the experts.


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms
  • 1.8 Organization of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Sources of Water Pollution
  • 2.3 Causes of Water Pollution
  • 2.3.1 Domestic Water Pollution
  • 2.3.2 Industrial Water Pollution
  • 2.3.3 Agricultural Water Pollution
  • 2.4 Categories of Water Pollution
  • 2.4.1 Sediments
  • 2.4.2 Nutrients
  • 2.4.3 Biological Pollutants
  • 2.4.4 Chemical Pollutants
  • 2.5 Treatment of Water Pollution

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Data Collection
  • 3.3 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Causes of Water Pollution
  • 4.2 Effects of Water Pollution
  • 4.2.1 Effect of Water Pollution On Human Health
  • 4.2.2 Effect of Water Pollution On Plants
  • 4.3 Control of Water Pollution

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Water is the most important aspect of natural resources, and is essential to the existence of all living species including human, food production, and economic growth. Water is the important and necessary element that makes up about 75% of our planet and the crust of Earth the Earth (Arif, Muhammad, Somia, Asifa, Kainat et al., 2020). It is one of the essential natural resources required for the reproduction of all forms of surface organisms. Water is a vital ingredient that we will find in all three states as liquid, solid, and gaseous or modes of matter. However the main concern is that the various kinds of natural and anthropogenic practises conducted by humans influence this natural supply. These change water by introducing harmful chemicals, organic and inorganic products which damage this natural source of water very seriously, directly or indirectly (Abdulrazzak, Bierk & Abdulrazzaq, 2020).

As a consequence, by touching these substances, which may contain toxins, the resources of wetlands and human beings living in this environment are negatively affected. Polluted water per year causes 4 million diarrhea diseases and 2.2 million deaths (Jabeen, Huang & Aamir, 2015). Within present situation, where demand for freshwater is rising, there is growing lack of uncontaminated and disease-free water sources. (Santana, Olivares, Silva, Valesco, Luzardo, de jesus, 2020). Water pollution is the introduction of substances and materials that are toxic to living creatures when they pass their absorption threshold levels of the polluted water (Singh, 2015). It comprises, along with the radiological compounds, the heat, organic, inorganic, and biological compounds. The consequent water pollution poses a significant threat to Earth’s well-being along with its population.

The key causes of water pollution are domestic, industries and agricultural practices. Globally, 80% of industrial waste and garbage is dumped into water sources and industry is responsible for annual disposal into water bodies of millions of tonnes of heavy metals, solvents, hazardous sludge and other waste (WWAP, 2017). Agriculture, which contributes for 70 percent of worldwide water abstractions, plays a significant role in water pollution (Javier, Sara & Hugh 2017). Farms spill vast amounts of agrochemicals into water sources, organic matter, medicine metabolites, sediments, and freshwater runoff. The resulting water contamination poses identified threats for marine habitats, human health and economic practices (UNEP, 2016). There are several cities around the world currently experiencing a severe water crisis, and approximately 40 percent of the world’s food production is cultivated under irrigation, and a wide range of industrial processes rely on water (Joshua & Nazrul Islam, 2015). The climate, economic growth, and technologies are all strongly affected by regional and seasonal water supply, and surface and groundwater quality. Water quality is influenced by human activity and is decreasing as urbanization, population growth, industrial development, climate change and other influences increase (Santana, Olivares, Silva, Luzardo, Valesco, de jesus, 2020).

If water contains organic, inorganic components together with the existence of bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae, protozoa and other organisms, it is not fit for drink. When certain species are found in the higher concentration, the water becomes toxic. That renders the water unfit to drink. The degree of contamination depends mostly on substances concentration. Some substances although at low concentration can cause pollution. Poisons, contaminants, chemicals and some pathogens are included. The contamination of water is not natural and is primarily man-made (UNEP, 2016). Very commonly, waste is discharged into the receiving water sources by failing to do its direct or indirect treatment with too little care for its self – purification ability. Threats to the diluting capacities of lagoons and waterways in big cities include the dumping of raw sewage, refuse, as well as oil spills. In itself, the natural purification of contaminated waters is never easy, whereas heavily polluted water can travel long distances in days before a sufficient degree of purification is reached (Joshua & Nazrul Islam, 2015). Water contamination is a global problem, and has risen in both industrialized and emerging countries, affecting economic development as well as millions of people’s physical and environmental health. Global water shortage is exacerbated not only by the resource’s physical shortage but also by the increasing water pollution in many countries, decreasing the quantity of clean water to use (Javier, Sara & Hugh 2017).


1.2 Statement of Problem

Water is one of the renewable resources essential for sustaining all forms of life, food production, economic development, and for general well being. It is impossible to substitute for most of its uses, difficult to de pollute, expensive to transport, and it is truly a unique gift to mankind from nature. Water is also one of the most manageable natural resources as it is capable of diversion, transport, storage, and recycling. All these properties impart to water its great utility for human beings. The surface water and groundwater resources of the country play a major role in agriculture, hydropower generation, livestock production, industrial activities, forestry, fisheries, navigation, recreational activities etc. The freshwater ecosystems of the world comprise only about 0.5% of the earth’s surface and have a volume of 2.84×105 Km3. Rivers constitute an insignificant amount (0.1%) of the land surface. Only 0.01% of the waters of the earth occur in river channels. Inspite of these low quantities, running waters are of enormous significance (Wetzel, 2001). India receives annual precipitation of about 4000 km3, including snowfall. Out of this, monsoon rainfall is of the order of 3000 km3. Rainfall in India is dependent on the south-west and north-east monsoons, on shallow cyclonic depressions and disturbances and on local storms (Kumar et. al., 2005). Most of it takes place under the influence of south-west monsoon between June and September except in Tamil Nadu, where it is under the influence of north-east monsoon during October and November (Kumar et. al., 2005). India is gifted with river system comprising more than 20 major rivers with several tributaries. Many of these rivers are perennial and some of them are seasonal. Although India occupies only 3.29 million km2 geographical area, constituting 2.4% of the world’s land area, it supports over 15% of the world’s population. The population of India as on 1st March 2001 stood at 1,027,015,247 persons. Thus, India supports about 1/6th of world population, 1/50th of world’s land and 1/25th of world’s water resources (Water Management Forum, 2003).

In the last few decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the demand for freshwater due to rapid growth of population and the accelerated pace of industrialization (Ramakrishnaiah et al., 2009). Human health is threatened by most of the agricultural development activities particularly in relation to excessive application of fertilizers and unsanitary conditions (Okeke and Igboanua, 2003). Anthropogenic activities related to extensive urbanization, agricultural practices, industrialization, and population expansion have led to water quality deterioration in many parts of the world (Baig et al. 2009, Mian et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2010). In addition, deficient water resources have increasingly restrained water pollution control and water quality improvement (Bu et al., 2010). Water pollution has been a research focus for government and scientists. Therefore, protecting river water quality is extremely urgent because of serious water pollution and global scarcity of water resources.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main aim of this study was to assess the causes and effects of water pollution and its possible control in Nigeria. The specific objectives are outlined as follows;

  1. To ascertain the causes of water pollution in Nigeria
  2. To evaluate the effects of water pollution in Nigeria
  3. To examine the prospects of minimizing water pollution in Nigeria
  4. To assess the strategies for control of water pollution in Nigeria

1.4 Research Questions

In other to achieve the objective of the research, the following research questions were formulated:

  1. What are the causes of water pollution in Nigeria?
  2. What are the effects of water pollution in Nigeria?
  3. What are the prospects of minimizing water pollution in Nigeria?
  4. What are the strategies for control of water pollution in Nigeria?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • HO1: There is no significant effect of water pollution in Nigeria
  • HA1: There is a significant effect of water pollution in Nigeria

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study upon completion will be useful to:

  1. The government in their policy formulation and implementation
  2. The federal ministry of environment in combating the menace of climatic change
  3. Future researchers and studies on areas of related interests on water pollution and environmental issues

1.7 Definition of Terms

Water:

A substance composed of the chemical elements hydrogen and oxygen and existing in gaseous, liquid, and solid states. It is one of the most plentiful and essential of compounds. A tasteless and odourless liquid at room temperature, it has the important ability to dissolve many other substances.

Pollution:

may be seen as the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, air or light.

Water Pollution:

Water pollution is the release of substances into bodies of water that makes water unsafe for human use and disrupts aquatic ecosystems. Water pollution can be caused by a plethora of different contaminants, including toxic waste, petroleum, and disease-causing microorganisms.


1.8 Organization of Study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The study was carried out to assess the causes and effects of water pollution and its possible control in Nigeria. From the study, Control of water pollution is more popular among scholars. It receives 36% of the total scholarly articles employed for this study. Categories of water pollution are the second dominant that receives 25% of scholarly contributions on water pollution. Additionally, causes of water is second to the least or its third when observe carefully from the figure. It records 21%. It is therefore the third in popularity that receives scholarly contributions across the globe. Sources of water pollution as reveal by literature study, it covers 18%. Looking at that we can rank the water pollution parameters employed for this study as follows; Control of water pollution, Categories of water Pollution, Causes of water pollution and Sources of water pollution.


5.2 Conclusion

From the study, it is important that human behavior approach and techniques in controlling water pollution especially in developing world should be implemented. Solid waste from households, industries and agricultural products should be properly controlled through proper campaign with the aid of public lecture, billboards to convey messages, visual broadcasting and audio broadcasting and with the aid and support of pamphlets. Sewage from both households & industries should be properly monitored by government by enacting policies for the industrialists to treat effluents before discharging in to water bodies.


5.3 Recommendation

Creating environmental awareness to the teeming rural based population with low literacy levels is the best option to curbing problems of water pollution. This could be achieved through organizing environmentally friendly conference, workshops, seminars and it should be organize periodically so as to create avenue for sharing new ideas and methodologies interchanged by the experts.

  1. Through radio, television and other electronic media, the public should be informed on the importance of controlling water pollution.
  2. A prompt legislative framework should be put in place to make laws that would tackle headlong issues of environmental pollution in Nigeria.

Determination Of The Causes, Effects Of Water Pollution And Its Possible Control


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