Determination Of The Causes, Effects Of Environmental Pollution And Its Possible Control, Within Kwara And Osun State.

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Determination Of The Causes, Effects Of Environmental Pollution And Its Possible Control, Within Kwara And Osun State.


Abstract


This project, Eradication of Environmental Pollution, (a case study of Kwara, Osun, Industries).
Pollution is a very terrible phenomenon as it does more harm to human health and environment, or pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the surrounding to cause discomfort to the Ecosystem. Industrial pollution, which is a branch of pollution, occurs mostly in towns as a result or rapid urbanization, geometrical increase, in human needs and industrial development which has a connection with increase industrial pollution. In the course of the study, the environmental protection Agency (EPA) collaborates with many agencies to eradicate pollution and the literature review enumerates the ideas and lectures on the project little by some school of thoughts and learning men in their books. The survey of several locations of industries and their characteristics in Ilorin, Oshogbo, and also gives the required information and data of industrial pollution and it covers the effects of all the type of industrial pollution and it covers the effects of all the type of industrial pollution.


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Preamble, Definition and cause of environmental pollution
  • 1.2 Types of Pollution
  • 1.3 Major Air Pollutant, Chemical Pollutant and Their Sources.
  • 1.4 Aim and Objectives
  • 1.5 Scope of the Study
  • 1.6 Justification of the Study
  • 1.7 Description of the Study Area

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Collaboration of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • 2.2 Air Pollution
  • 2.3 Water Pollution
  • 2.4 Land Pollution
  • 2.5 Inter-Pollution of Resources
  • 2.6 Pollution by Sanitary Waste

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1. Nigerian Bottling Company Limited (Oshogbo)
  • 3.2. Saw – mill (Wood industry) (Ilorin)
  • 3.3. Iron and steel manufacturing industry (Oshogbo)
  • 3.4. Dangote group of company
  • 3.5. Tuyil Pharmaceutical Company

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Conclusion

  • 4.1. Effects of water pollutant
  • 4.2. Effects of air pollutant
  • 4.3. Effects of land pollutant
  • 4.4. Effects of noise pollutant
  • 4.5 Possible Method solution to industrial pollution
  • 4.5.1. Air pollution
  • 4.5.2 Water pollution
  • 4.6 Solid removal
  • 4.6.1 Piping system
  • 4.6.2 Chemistry Treatment
  • 4.6.3. Noise pollution
  • 4.7 Possible Solution to Land Pollution
  • 4.7.1. Sanitary Land Filling
  • 4.7.2. Operation of a Sanitary Landfill
  • 4.7.3. Merits of sanitary land filling

Chapter Five

5.0. Recommendations and Conclusion

  • 5.1. Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • Reference

List of Tables


  • Table 3.1:- Industrial assessment
  • Table 3.2:- Pollution in saw mill (wood industry)
  • Table 3.3:- Raw material used in the industry
  • Table 3.4:- Pollution from raw materials
  • Table 4.1:- Summary of pollution of water
  • Table 4.2:- Summary of air pollutants
  • Table 4.3:- Summary of land pollutants
  • Table 4.4:- summary of noise pollutant

List of Plates


  • Plate 1.1:- Water pollution
  • Plate 1.3:- Land pollution II
  • Plate 1.4:- Noise pollution
  • Plate 1.5:- Air pollution II

Chapter One


Introduction

1.0 Environmental Pollution, Causes and It’s Possible Control

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical system or living organisms.

Ibiwoye E.O (2009), Pollution can take the form of chemical substance or energy such as noise, heat, or light. It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environment pollution as we know it today. The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense qualities of coal and other fossils fuels gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharge added to the growing load of untreated human waste.

If our surrounding polluted we suffer from many kinds of disease and sickness, if our surrounding get highly polluted our life get endangered.

Pollution as a very pervasive phenomenon, is a discharge into the environment in qualities of some substance or energy or gases by man which can be considered harmful to himself and other living organism and worse still, reduce the quality of human life, pollution is a relative concept and although, almost no substance exists in a pure state, it is only when the impurities rise above a certain level that there is concern. Moreover, they varies from case to case depending on the particular use for which the source is intended.


1.1 Causes of Environmental Pollution

Industrial pollution is a pollution which can be directly link with industries in contrast to other pollution sources. This form of pollution is one most leading causes of pollution worldwide. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate that up to 50% of nation’s pollution is cause by industries. Industrial pollution poses problem for the entire planet especially developing countries like Nigeria. There are number of forms of industrial pollution. One of the most common is water pollution, caused by dumping of industrial waste, which causes leakage into ground water and waterway.

Industrial pollution can also impact air quality, and it can enter the soil causing widespread environment problems. Smoke rise from the fuel that we burn in our kitchens and workshops. This smoke gives rise to carbon dioxide that pollutes our environment. The smoke that people make while they smoke that rises from the hotels, and restaurants in towns and cities pollute the environment.

Industrial pollution hurts the environment in a range of ways, and it has a negative impact on human lives and health pollutants make an kill animals and plants, imbalance ecosystems degrade air quality radically, damage buildings, and generally degrade quality of life factory workers in area with uncontrolled industrial pollution are especially vulnerable.


1.2 Types of Pollution

Pollution is a result of progression and development that is occurring on a regular basis with the growth of technology, more and more development is taking place in order to improve the quality of human life, this series is certainly giving high level of comfort and a rich life style to all humans but is sadly diminishing the worth of human health, the need to have a good and healthy environment is ignored. Many new inventions and introduction are causing a danger to human life as they are done artificially; this artificial and unsystematic way of generating high level of comforts is producing components that are inevitable to human life. Be it anything including the basis needs of like clothing and even food is now being produced synthetically. There are some of the most common types of environmental pollution that are gradually bringing people to a morbid stage are

  • A. Air pollution
  • B. Water pollution
  • C. Noise pollution
  • D. Land pollution
  • E. Waste and water pollution

A. Air pollution in the industries takes place when some dangerous gases are discharge in to atmosphere in quantities that may render the air unbreathable.

B. Water pollution The waste product of factories, (water pollution) which are in form of liquid effluent may drain off in to the nearby fresh or steam there by polluting the water and rendering the water noxious, harmful and undrinkable.

C. Noise pollution The excessive noise emanating from the factories engines has effect on our sleep, hearing, speech communication, degree of annoyance and other undesirable effects of noise pollution and it also affect human being physiologically and physiological.

D. Land pollution occur when solid refused are heaped-up on the ground surface causing severe nuisance to the environment and also reduce or limit the utility of availability of space to which the affected land can be put in to.

E. Waste and water pollution, when toxic substances enter lake streams, rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. This result in the pollution of water whereby the quality of the water deteriorates, affecting aquatic ecosystems. Pollutants can also seep down affect the ground water deposit.


1.3 Major Air Pollutant, Chemical Pollutant and their Sources.

Major Air Pollutants and Their Sources

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas that is produced by the incomplete burning of carbon- based fuel including petrol, diesel, and wood. It is also produced from the combustion of nature and synthetic product such as cigarettes. It lowers the amount of oxygen that enters our blood; it can slow our reflexes and make us confused and sleepy.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the principle green house gas emitted as a result of human activities such as the burning of coal oil, and natural gases.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Are gases that are released mainly from air-conditioning system and refrigeration when releases in to the air, with few other gas which leads to a reduction of the Ozone layer that protects the earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.

Lead: Is present in petrol, diesel, lead, batteries, paints, hair dye products etc. lead, affect children in particular. It can cause nervous system damage and digestive problems and in some cases, cause cancer.

Major Chemical pollution and their Sources

In most parts of world the bodies of wholes and dolphins washing ashore are so highly contaminated that they qualify as toxic waste and have to be specially disposed off. There are many different sources of chemical pollution including;

  1. Domestic sewage
  2. Industrial discharges
  3. Seepage from waste sides
  4. Atmospheric fallout
  5. Accidents and spill at sea
  6. Operational discharges from oil rigs
  7. Mining discharges
  8. Agricultural run-off.

However, the chemical that are probably of most concern for everyone are the persistent pollutants, those substances that enters marine food chain and are centrally passed along the chain to the marine top predators increasing amounts persistent pollutants industrial chemical. The most common pollutants are:

  1. Carbon monoxide (Co)
  2. Carbon dioxide (Co2)

1.4 Aim and Objectives

The primary aim of this project is to analyzed the causes, and effects of environmental pollution and how it can be eradicated in the society.

Objectives
  1. To investigate the possible causes of industrial pollutant
  2. To ascertain the effect of that or such pollution in the area of studied. i.e. Kwara and Osun State
  3. To provide a possible eradication or control method.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The focus of this study is on industrial pollution and how it possible to control it. The purpose of this work will be incomplete until the necessary and relevant industries in Kwara, and Osun State are visited and inspected. In line with this fact, manufacturing industries were visited, industries like Pharmaceutical Company, Timber (saw mill) Industry, Bottling Company etc. from where data’s were obtained.


1.6 Justification of the Study

The importance of this project is to determine invariably the possible causes and effects of environmental pollution in the study areas. It includes the determination of sources of the pollution in those environment and the possible control/eradicative measures to be put in place in order to reduce or curb the negative effect of such pollutions in the environment.


1.7 Description of the Study Area

The description of study areas for the research work is listed below here:-

a. Tuyil Pharmaceutical Company (Ilorin):

This is a company that is largely known for drug production and is locate along Yidi Road Ilorin.

b. Nigeria Bottling Company LTD (Oshogbo):

This is a company know internationally for production of soft drink in variety of brands. It’s situated along Edward Road, along Aregbe Road Oshogbo in Osun State.

c. Saw Mill/Wood Industry (Ilorin):

This is an industry noted for the production of timbers for construction works. It is located along Offa –Ajase-Ipo Road beside Offa-garage Ilorin, Kwara State.

d. Iron and Steel Manufacturing Industries (Oshogbo):

This is an industry known for manufacturing iron and steel. This company buys scraped iron and steel reformed it for used purposes. It is situated along Ikirun along Oshogbo, Osun State.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Honestly peaking, as mention earlier on; a lot of importance can be attached to this work. It can be seen that the work will surely go a long way in helping the industrialists and the prospective industrialists alike as to ways of knowing the effects of pollutants emanating from their various industries and the possible antidotes to deal with the pollutants.

A comprehensive analysis of various type of industrial pollution was done from the survey carried out from different industries located in Kwara and Osun State and types of discharges and emission of industrial effluents were treated also. The dangers to the effects of pollution and also the possible solution of the industrial pollutants were highlighted.

Going by the outcome of the survey carried out on the industrial pollution in Ilorin, and Osun State, one can inferred that the effects of industrial pollution has not gotten to a nuisance threshold. This means that the effect of pollution (industrial) is yet unserious to the extent of causing a noticeable nuisance or hazard on the Ilorin, Osun inhabitants. This is because, industries are not many and some are just springing up in Ilorin Township.

Nevertheless, important of the consciousness now of the of the future threat cannot be over-emphasized since Ilorin being a state capital will attract more industries and so more goods and services could be produced to meet mains unquenchable demands. A work of this sort is quite necessary to forestall future hazard of pollution.

The possible method of solutions to industrial pollution discussed in the work are a real master plan for solving industrial pollution menaces and definitely he effective when adopted, possible recommendation to this line is that the government should task the organization concerned. The Federal Environment Protection Agency (FEPA) and the allied agencies which should in turn reach out to the state branches of the agency to create more awareness to the industrialists of the threats and dangers that can be caused by the indiscriminate discharge and emission of their industrial effluents into the environment. The public health is in danger by this indiscriminate discharge and emission of industrial wastes into the environment. The industrialist should be enforced to find lasting solutions to the pollutants emanating from their industries and if this is adhered to, will reduce the industrial pollution and improve public health and also minimize government spending on drugs and facilities


5.2 Recommendations and Present

  1. It is recommended that a law be promulgated to regulate the level of noise emanating from the individual since it is proved and also obvious that noise has adverse effects on hearing, sleep, degree of annoyances, speech communication, working efficiency, physiological and psychology hence, it is important to put noise under serious control. Moreover, existence of our life depends mostly and mainly on oxygen organ in the atmosphere saves our life. This oxygen is exhaled by trees. Trees consume the carbon dioxide which is fatal to our existence. Tree makes the oxygen and spreads it in the air for us. As such, we should have enough number of trees in our environment to eradicate our environmental pollution.
  2. Long time back, there were numerous trees in our environment, and small woods and forests surrounded each of our village. As that time, there were extensive forests and jungles in our country. But the most foolish of the people, for their selfish ends, thinned away our groves, woods, forests and jungles by indiscriminately cutting away the tree from them. So we shall have to plant a large number of trees to save our environment from the fatal pollution.
  3. We should not pass stool and urine in the open; we should make scientific latrines and urinals for us. Drains and deposits of fifth should not be allowed to leave gas and for this we should apply the necessary scientific method, we should pay careful attention so that our environment keeps neat and clean. Above all, we shall put stress on the forestation of our environment.
  4. Also, a law should be promulgated that the industries noted for producing a high level of noise be sited very far away from the town. Government should also task the health inspectors to be undergoing continuous inspection and enforcing existing rules on sanitation at every industry and the erring industries be dealt with, with immediate effect or better still, extend the long arms of the law to the industries that are rcci1ciIrnt to abide strictly with the existing law. Such measure as the imposition of fines to the erring industries could be just a nice way of generating funds for the health sector and the government as a whole.
  5. It is also recommended that, there should be a period’s seminars, symposiums or workshop that focus mainly on pollution abatement and should be made compulsory by fortifying it with some decrease for all industries that are known for producing pollution.
  6. This sort of programmed should be organized by some corporate bodies or even corporate individuals so as to move forward the quest for the eradication of industrial pollution in its entire ramification in Osun and Kwara State.

Determination Of The Causes, Effects Of Environmental Pollution And Its Possible Control, Within Kwara And Osun State.


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Determination Of The Causes, Effects Of Environmental Pollution And Its Possible Control, Within Kwara And Osun State.


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