Determination Of Some Biochemical Parameters In Diabetic And Hypertensive Pregnant Subjects In Some Referral Hospitals

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

Determination Of Some Biochemical Parameters In Diabetic And Hypertensive Pregnant Subjects In Some Referral Hospitals


Abstract


Background. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical parameters (lipid profile) of some diabetic and hypertensive pregnant women attending antenatal at Lagos State University Teaching hospital (LUTH) Yaba Lagos State. Methods. A total of 350 subjects belonging to both normal and high-risk pregnant groups were selected on the basis of their willingness to participate in the study. The study group included 182 normal, 55 pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), 25 Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 15 adolescents and 73 anemic cases. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in 2nd trimester of pregnancy and were analyzed for serum lipid peroxides, vitamin E, total cholesterol, triglycerides and magnesium. Results. It can be concluded that the high lipid concentrations in hypertension and diabetic pregnant woman obtained from this study seems not to be directly involved with diabetes and diabetes in pregnancy and appears to be a reflection of the metabolic condition of pregnant women. It is recommended that blood lipid levels be estimated in pregnant women during prenatal care since it could be useful in the early diagnosis and prevention of obstetric complications.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Diabetes and hypertension in pregnant women as associated with an increase incidence of congenital abnormalities when compared with normal pregnancy (Hagay et al., 2005). Frequency of diabetic and hypertensive mother is estimated to be 6-10% (Hagay and Reece, 2006). Alteration in lipid profile is known to occur in diabetic and hypertensive pregnancy (Caron and Kjos, 2000). In the present study, the following parameters were assessed in the serum to elucidate the biochemical profile status in pregnant women with diabetes and hypertensive (Kjos, 2000). Serum lipid profile parameters to be determined are total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein chore sterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride using Hitachi 902 Atom analyzer. In reference to diabetes, the pregnant woman experiences physiological changes to support foetal growth and development. Pregnancy is associated with significant change in the functions of the normal liver. Although the precise mechanism underlying these various alterations is not clear in every case, their recognition is essential to a proper clinical evaluation (Angel, 2006).

Lipid metabolism change during pregnancy (Brizzi et al, 2008) Natural rising of plasma lipid is seen in normal pregnancy, but this event is not atherogenic and it is believed that this process is under hormonal control (Rovinsky and gaffin, 2010). But in complicated pregnancy, there a possible defect in the mechanism of adjusting physiologic hyperlipidemia. Plasma lipid profile in the first trimester of pregnancy may predict the incidence and severity of pre-eclampsia. The anabolic phase of early pregnancy encourages lipogeneses and fat storage in preparation for rapid foetal growth in late pregnancy. Lipolysis is increased as a result of insulin resistance, leading to increased a s a result of insulin resistance, leading to increased flux of fatty acids to the liver promoting the synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDLS0 and increased triglyceride (TG) concentration (Ross, 2007). Because of a decrease in the activity of lipoprotein lipase, very-LDL remains in the plasma for longer and leads to the accumulation of LDL. An increase LDL is associated with the development of atherosclerosis (Ross, 2007). Abnormal lipid metabolism also seems important in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-included hypertension (PIH). Pregnancy included hypertension is characterized by elevated blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema (Dutta, 2001). Although considered to be relatively rare in the United States, PIH occurs world wide in from 2 to 35 percent of pregnancies, depending on diagnostic criteria and study of population. PIH is also called preclampsia and it occurs most often in young women with first pregnancy. It is more common in twin pregnancies, in with chronic hypertension, pre-existing diabetes, and in women who had PIH in a previous pregnancy. Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, contribute significantly to serious complications for both the fetus and the mother (Hagay et al, 205). PIH occurs more frequently and is more severed women with preexisting hypertension then in women who are normotensive prior to pregnancy. The hypertensive disorder of pregnancy collectively represents a significant public health problem in the United States and throughout the world.

The cause and nature of this disorder is only partially understood (Angel, 2006). Therefore, the presence study was carried out to evaluate plasma lipid concentrations in normal and hypertensive pregnancy in order to establish whether hypertension includes abnormal lipid concentrations that could constitute potential metabolic risks factors for pregnancy complication.

Lipid profile in normal pregnant women, many scientific evidences have raise concern about the adverse effect of abnormal blood lipid levels, like cholesterol and other lipids and lipoproteins, on atherosclerotic disease (Gotto, 2009). The important attached to the need for routine examination of the serum lipid and lipoprotein profile in human subjects especially during pregnancy under disease condition such as diabetes and hypertension is well established (seggmour, 2006). Gotto, (2009) have revealed that serum lipid and lipoprotein profile varies with age, sex, diet and race. The serum protein and lipoprotein profile of many communities, remain to be established. This study was other fore, designed to access the variation of the serum lipid and lipoprotein profile among the diabetics, hypertensive and normal pregnant.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Greatly increased lipid levels have been associated with a number of health complications which are known to have far greater effects on immunosuppressed individuals. A number of researchers have associated lipid levels with some complications. According to Ross (2007), an increase LDL is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Changes in lipid levels may have important implications for the development of atherosclerosis and the long-term cardiovascular health of women with diabetes and hypertension. It is therefore of necessity to investigate the lipid levels in diabetic and hypertensive pregnant woman so as to establish a relationship between lipid levels and diabetes as well as hypertension and to also ascertain the risk of the development of atherosclerosis, long-term cardiovascular diseases and other congenital complications among women in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to determine the biochemical parameters (lipid profile) of some diabetic and hypertensive pregnant women attending antenatal in LUTH. Specific objectives include:

  1. To investigate the levels of triglyceride (TG), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) in hypertensive and diabetic pregnant women attending LUTH
  2. To determine the relationship between lipid profile and diabetes in pregnancy
  3. To determine the relationship between lipid profile and hypertension in pregnancy

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the level of TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and TC in hypertensive and diabetic pregnant women attending LUTH?
  2. Is there a significant relationship between lipid profiles and diabetes in pregnancy?
  3. Is there a significant relationship between lipid profiles and hypertension in pregnancy?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis I
  • H0: There is no significant relationship between lipid profiles and diabetes among pregnant women attending LUTH
  • Hi: There is a significant relationship between lipid profiles and diabetes among pregnant women attending LUTH
Hypothesis II
  • H0: There is no significant relationship between lipid profiles and hypertension among pregnant women attending LUTH
  • H1: There is a significant relationship between lipid profiles and hypertension among pregnant women attending LUTH

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work.This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this work is limited to the comparative determination of the lipid profiles of diabetic and hypertensive pregnant women attending antenatal at Lagos State University Teaching hospital (LUTH) Yaba Lagos State. The research work is based mainly on examination of differences in lipid profile among diabetic, hypertensive and non-hypertensive and non-diabetic pregnant women


1.8 Limitations of the study

Financial Constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Definition of Terms

TG:

Triglyceride

HDL-C:

High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

LDL-C:

Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

TC:

Total Cholesterol


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

It can be therefore concluded that the high lipid concentrations in hypertension and diabetic pregnant woman obtained from this study seems not to be directly involved with hypertension and diabetes in pregnancy and appears to be a reflection of the metabolic condition of pregnant women.


5.2 Recommendation

From this study, it is recommended that blood lipid concentrations be estimated in pregnant women during antenatal care since it could be useful in the early diagnosis and prevention of obstetric complications. As stated by the WHO, World Health Report (2005), “Make Every Mother and Child Count.” Other recommendations are listed:

  • Measurement of serum lipid profile should be introduced to the managementplan of diabetes
  • More comprehensive studies are needed to further establish the relationship between serum lipid levels diabetic as well as hypertensive females during pregnancy

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Determination Of Some Biochemical Parameters In Diabetic And Hypertensive Pregnant Subjects In Some Referral Hospitals

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.