Determinants Of Employees Turnover In Private Schools

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Determinants Of Employees Turnover In Private Schools


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Job turnover has a long history of affecting an organization’s reputation as well as individual and organizational performance. Job turnover, according to Ahuja, Chudoba, George, Kacmar, & McKnight (2002), refers to the amount of personnel moving in and out of a company. Another definition of turnover is the departure of an employee from an organization (Hammerberg, 2002). Turnover intention is defined as a conscious and purposeful desire to quit a company (Khan, Yusoff., & Khan., 2014; Qureshi, 2013).

Rapid changes in the world, globalization, economic conditions, and technological innovation have recently produced difficulties such as competitiveness among employees in organizations. Every organization competes with another organization in some way. Similarly, every firm strives to train their personnel and prefers smart work over hard effort. As a result of this competitiveness, employees are overworked and underpaid. As a result, workload refers to the amount of work assigned to an individual (Khan., Rasli, Khan, Yasir, & Malik, 2014; Qureshi, 2013).

Staff turnover has both negative and positive aspects, and it is a typical part of how a organizations operates. According to Flippo (1984), staff turnover is the flow of employees into and out of an organization. High employee turnover rates may be detrimental to the organization (Armstrong 2004). The loss of skilled personnel increases the pressure on the remaining employees, resulting in major operational challenges (Dessler 2004). The intrinsic expenses of personnel turnover account for a larger portion of a company’s total operating costs.

Mungumi (2002) identified the costs and consequences of high staff turnover rates as loss of competent human resource, hiring costs involving time and facilities for recruitment, interviewing, and examining a replacement, scrap and waste rates that rise when new employees are involved, overtime pay resulting from an excessive number of separations causing difficulty meeting contract delivery dates, and training costs involving time of supervisors, personnel department, and train personnel. High accident rates among new employees, insufficient use of production equipment during the hiring and training periods, loss of production between the separation of the old employees and replacement, administration costs of adding and replacing from payroll, decreased commitment among remaining employees, and loss of competent staff with exceptional capabilities. Cascio (1982) finds that high levels of turnover drive up expenses, and new employees take time to learn and adapt to the organization’s culture, systems, and processes.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Private schools’ primary goal is to make a profit, which they can only do if they add greater value to student accomplishment per unit cost of the student’s investment. To increase profitability, the management of these schools should seek to reduce costs as much as feasible. Staff turnover accounts for a larger portion of an organization’s operational costs (Armstrong, 2004). According to (CIPD, 2004), there are direct expenses associated with training and development, as well as the opportunity cost of time spent by managers in training and development, as well as the associated loss of performance. High employee turnover is costly. Consequently, one of the primary concerns of organizational management is to maintain effective staff retention by adopting periodic quantitative and qualitative measurements to evaluate the severity of staff turnover. A staff turnover rate of 10-15% is considered reasonable (Armstrong, 2004). An company must understand the causes and rates of turnover in order to take the necessary efforts to lower the rate.

Almost all private schools face the enormous task of identifying, attracting, and maintaining high-caliber faculty or staff. These developments have resulted in a more strategic approach to human resource management in the education sector. According to Nyakundi (2010), employees in organizations and learning institutions like to feel that someone cares about and appreciates their work, which motivates them to work more effectively; thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of employees turnover in private schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

Broadly, the main aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of employees turnover in private schools. Specifically, other aims of this study are:

  1. To examine the factors that influence employee turnover in private schools
  2. To determine if the rate of employee turnover affects academic performance of students in private schools.
  3. To determine if the rate of employee turnover affects the profitability of private schools.
  4. To proffer measures that can help private schools to retain employee turnover.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions which are in line with the objectives of this study will be answered:

  1. What are the factors that influence employee turnover in private schools?
  2. Does the rate of employee turnover affect academic performance of students in private schools?
  3. Does the rate of employee turnover affect the profitability of private schools?
  4. What are the measures that can help private schools to retain employee turnover?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be useful to the human resource department and the management of private schools in Nigeria as it will give them a thorough grasp of personnel turnover. It will also help them in planning for human resource needs.

The conclusions of this study were to offer a wealth of knowledge for the academic community, therefore stimulating more research on staff turnover in sectors of the economy other than education.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will be focused on examining the determinants of employees turnover in private schools. Specifically, it will be focused on examining the factors that influence employee turnover in private schools, determining if the rate of employee turnover affects academic performance of students in private schools, determining if the rate of employee turnover affects the profitability of private schools and proffering measures that can help private schools to retain employee turnover.

Private schools in Ado Ekiti LGA of Ekiti State will be used as participants for the survey of this study.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Determinants:

A factor which decisively affects the nature or outcome of something

Employees Turnover:

Is the measurement of the number of employees who leave an organization during a specified time period for various reasons

Private Schools:

A school that is established, conducted, and primarily supported by an individual or a nongovernmental agencies.


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