Determinants Of Cohabitation Among Students Of Tertiary Institution In Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti Nigeria
The investigator embarked on the research to find out the determinants of cohabitation among students of tertiary institution in Ekiti state university, Ado Ekiti Nigeria. In order to carry out the investigation, the researcher formulated two research questions and one hypothesis to guide the investigation. The researcher constructed a Questionnaire to collect information from the respondents. The investigator carried out a reliability test of the instrument using the test re-test method. A reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained showing that the instrument was reliable to carry out the research. The items of the instrument had face and content validity as well as language appropriateness. The researcher used 3 research assistants to administer 271 copies of the instrument on the respondents. The research assistants retrieved 245 copies of the questionnaire. The researcher scored, collated and made use of the mean and standard deviation to answer the two research questions while one-way Analysis Of Variance ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis. The investigation revealed in Table 1 that some students cohabit because of high on-campus accommodation fee, with mean score of 2.79, some others cohabit due to financial difficulties in order to save on rent, food and other expenses and also as a result of their freedom from parental control and supervision. The research found out in Table 2 that one of the consequences of cohabitation is unwanted pregnancy with mean score of 3.52. The investigation also revealed in Table 2 that unwanted pregnancy may result into abortion with mean score of 3.49. Finally, the research found out that there is no significant difference among Federal, State and Private university student cohabiters in their assessment of the consequences of cohabitation. It is therefore recommended that Federal, State and Private owners of universities should put up adequate number of halls of residence for students.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Cohabitation is widely practiced by many people today. To many, it is easier to enter into cohabitation than a marital relationship because formal ceremonies and social recognition are not required for individuals opting to cohabit. Therefore, many people opt for cohabitation although the practice is associated with various effects such as unplanned pregnancies and spread of HIV and AIDS. Additionally, cohabitation is an immoral act since it undermines the sanctity of the marriage institution. Aluko (2009); states that cohabitation is changing the cultural landscape of the society. The proportion of first marriages preceded by cohabitation has increased ten-fold in the last few decades. The increasing number of cohabiting couples therefore sends a mixed message to the young people. On one hand, they hear parents and pastors proclaim the value of marriage, but on the other hand, they see a culture condoning cohabitation.
Students in higher educational institutions are experiencing a crunch of spiral college costs (Aluko, 2009; Grossband, 2003). This has shaped the behavior of many students positively and negatively. Schoen (2009), human behavior is shaped and related to the attributes of physical environment.
The environment determines the range of behavior than can occur in it. Therefore the students’ behavior is either positively or negatively influenced by the physical environment. The high cost of college fees have in some cases forced students to cohabit. According to Sassler (2004), many younger cohabiters enter into joint living arrangements as a result of financial need while may result in unstable partnerships.
Studies have shown that financial distress is a salient predictor of positive aspects of relationship quality for example affection, love and satisfaction, (Lichter, 2006). There is evidence that educational attainment promotes positive interactions within cohabiting couples as noted by Sassler (2004).
There are studies that show that economic well-being is positively related to the odds that contribute to cohabiting. However, Onyike (2010), cohabitors’ are less likely to pool their income together. This may provide greater flexibility to engage in a wide range of economic arrangements, but this is leaves cohabitors more exposed to fluctuations in income. Other studies have found a relationship between objective and subjective measures of financial strain and violent aggression toward female partners (Omonjo, 2014). Lichter (2006) notes that attitudes held during the transition to adulthood are likely to have a substantial influence on family formation behavior for two reasons.
Transition to adulthood is a period of relatively abundant opportunities and individuals are likely to form their attitudes and intentions about one particular activity in explicit comparisons to the alternatives to that activity (Omonjo, 2014). Also decisions made during the transition to adulthood have a particularly long-lasting influence on the remainder of the life course because they set individuals on paths that are sometimes difficult to change, (O’Connel, 1994). The basis of this paper was therefore to establish factors which lead to cohabitation among tertiary education students and determine the perceptions and attitudes of students to cohabit. The paper also sought to determine challenges that are being faced by students in cohabiting as well as reflect on the effects of cohabiting on students’ academic performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The increase in population of tertiary education students and the inability of the government to adequately provide the needed social infrastructures and funding of higher education in Nigeria has led to risky coping mechanisms among the students (Olson, 2000). The constraint on policy framework where females cannot enter males hostels or males enter females hostels, undesirable quality of food at the institution’s dining hall, inadequate meals, no entertainment, finance, souring relationships among roommates at the institution and the desire for “sexual gratification” has led to the students to resort to alternative areas for accommodation.
A situation where students of opposite sex are forced to live together and share things in common without any authorization portends danger to the sanctification of the institution of marriage and family (Kemanto, 2004). It is against the norms and values of our society to allow young and unmarried couple to live together especially where they do not have any family affinity. Most students that live together do not allow their parents to know about it. This therefore exposes the students to all forms of risk and harm as they continue to cohabit (Arisukwa, 2013). Students who live together with their partners lack both family susceptible to attack and abuse by both outsiders and even their partners. Although similar to manage, cohabitation has some distinct function from marriage.
The participants in a cohabitation sitting are not immune from the various problems that besiege it. Problems such as sacrificing of the primary aim of being in school, unwanted pregnancy, the use oral contraceptive by female students and the danger inherent in such practices, sharing of domestic chores among others (Aluko, 2009). Financial involvement can also bring the unit into serious conflict. The multi- dimensional consequences facing cohabiters are quite numerous. One of the consequences is unprotected sex and its attendant effects such as unwanted pregnancies and other sexually transmitted diseases (Aluko, 2011). These diseases can also affect the financial positions of the cohabiters therefore affecting other aspects like education. There are other educational consequences associated relationships among students.
Health dimension aspect of the problem is worrisome. Cohabiting students will most likely engage in unprotected sex which could result in sexually transmitted infections and the much dreaded HIV and AIDS disease. Olson (2000) notes that this practice of cohabitating has serious health issue to the health students that may indulge in the use of oral contraceptive in order to avoid unwanted pregnancy that may lead to truncated educational aspirations. But when pregnancy does occur, sometimes the female student is more like to seek abortion as a way out. This practice of seeking for abortion may lead to another problem of exposing the female students to quack doctors who are not licensed practitioners (Manning, 1995). However, some students may not conduct an abortion or even have the money to execute it. This may lead to giving birth to unwanted babies that were not planned for and all the consequences that come with including a threatened academic pursuit.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the determinants of cohabitation among students of tertiary institution in Ekiti state university, Ado Ekiti Nigeria.
Specifically, the study aims;
- To determine the causes of cohabitation among university students in Ekiti state university, Ado Ekiti
- To evaluate the consequences of cohabitation among university students in Ekiti state university, Ado Ekiti
1.4 Research Questions
Two research questions were raised:
- What are the causes of cohabitation among university students in Ekiti state university, Ado Ekiti ?
- What are the consequences of cohabitation among university students in Ekiti state university, Ado Ekiti ?
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
There is no significant difference among federal, state and private university students cohabiters in their assessment of the consequences of cohabitation.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study contributed in the filling of some gap in the literature on cohabitation among tertiary education students in Nigeria. It is also justified on the ground that it provides a base for the understanding of the various consequences from cohabitation and how the situation can be managed. The many consequences of cohabitation among the students were made known to aid government policies on students’ accommodation in Nigeria. The wide dearth of knowledge as a result of little work done on this phenomenon were also bridged and members of the public were aware of the consequences that are inherent in such practice and therefore be rational enough to decide against it (King, 2005). When the findings of the study are known, it will help to demystify some of the negative dangers in cohabitation and aid the tertiary education community as well as policy makers to understand the phenomenon and for adequate measures to be taken to bring the issue under control.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will analyze the determinants of cohabitation among students of tertiary institution in Ekiti state using Ekiti state university, Ado Ekiti Nigeria as a case study. The study is limited to some selected selected departments in the Ekiti state university. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among students in Ekiti state university.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Refers to two persons, man and woman who have no blood relations but are living together and sharing marital life and yet not legally married.
In this investigation, causes refer to determinants/factors responsible for cohabitation among university students.
Refer to negative outcome of cohabitation.
Refer to universities established, funded and managed by the Federal government of Nigeria.
These are universities founded, financed and managed by State governments in Nigeria.
Refer to universities established, funded and managed by the individuals or corporate bodies that own them in Nigeria..
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter summarizes the findings on the determinants of cohabitation among students of tertiary institution in Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti Nigeria. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
One of the findings of the research is that some students cohabit due to high tuition fees with mean score of 2.75. This finding lays credence to Scheen (2009), when he stated that human behavior is shaped and related to the attributes of physical environment, he maintained that the environment determines the range of behavior that can occur in it, therefore, the student behavior is either positively or negatively influenced by the physical environment. The high costs of college fees have in some cases forced students to cohabit. The investigation revealed that shortage of on campus accommodation could make some students resort to stay off campus and thus indulge in cohabitation with mean score of 2.60. This finding agrees with Svodziwa et al. (2017), when they stressed that shortage of on-campus accommodation, make students to resort to renting off-campus residential building, and thus cohabit. The research found out in Table 1 that due to financial difficulties some university students cohabit in order to save on rent, food and other expenses. This finding gives credence to Adeniyi (2019), who opined that students of higher institutions cohabit as a way to save on rent, food and other living expenses. The research has found out that the reason why university students cohabit is not to test how compatible they are for marriage with mean score of 2.46 which is below the benchmark of 2.50. This finding contradicts Ogunsola (2004), who opined that one of the main goals of cohabitation is to carefully study each other if they really matched for marriage. The investigation has revealed that undergraduates may take to cohabitation for sexual gratification with mean score of 2.97 which is higher than the benchmark of 2.50. This finding supports Alo and Akinde (2010), who pointed out that some of the consequences are unprotected sex and its attendant effects such as unwanted pregnancies and other sexually transmitted diseases. Another consequence of cohabitation found out by the research is abortion by cohabiters with mean score of 3.49 which is above the benchmark of 2.50 in Table 2. This finding agrees with Adeniyi (2019), who noted that high rate of abortion in tertiary institutions can be attributed to cohabitation. According to Adeniyi, some of the cohabiting female students often get pregnant and because they are not prepared for parenting, some of them take to abortion which exposes the female partners to the risk of death or damaged uterus.
The research in Table 3 has revealed, that there is no significant difference among Federal, State and Private university student cohabiters in their assessment of the consequences of cohabitation. This finding has clearly shown that it does not matter the university which the student cohabiter belongs, whether federal, state or private university, they have all assessed the consequences of cohabitation of students the same way.
The conclusion drawn by the researcher as a result of the findings is that, there is cohabitation among university students in Ekiti State University. Some of the causes of cohabitation are, high tuition fees, high on-campus accommodation fees, shortage of on-campus accommodation and sexual gratification among undergraduates. Cohabitation may bring about unwanted pregnancy, may result into abortion and abortion could damage female uterus.
As a result of the findings and conclusion reached, the researcher proposed the following recommendations:
- The Federal, State and Private owners of universities should put up adequate number of halls of residence for students.
- The university authorities should charge moderate accommodation fees so that many students can afford it.
- The rules and regulations in the halls of residence should not be so harsh so that students are encouraged to stay in them.
- The State government should give scholarship to indigent students so that they can meet up with their financial obligations in the university (including payment for on-campus accommodation).
- University Authorities should include issue of cohabitation in students’ handbook; what constitutes cohabitation, its consequences on students and punitive measures to be meted out to students who indulge in it.
- Parents should pay regular unscheduled visits to their children in universities so as to monitor their activities.
- Unwanted pregnancy by cohabiters should not be aborted because abortion could lead to damage of female uterus and sometimes to death.
- University Authorities should liaise with community leaders where students are cohabiting so as to put measures in place to regularly check students’ hostels and sanction those found cohabiting.
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