Desulphurisation Kerosene

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Desulphurisation Kerosene


Abstract


This report aimed at determining the presence and removal of mercaptan sulphur in kerosene using colour indicator method. It is known that impurities such as free sulphur, sulphur dioxide, marketers, finding materials etc. are found in petroleum products. Consequently, absorbents like molecular sieve, calcium oxide and even activated carbon could be used to trap these impurities, thereby making the product impurity free. The afficac of the absorption using calcium (Cao) Ercammerer flask was determined by titration. Excess Silver Nitrate is added to the sample ie effluent silves mercaptdes with his mercaptan sulphur compound present. The excess silver Nitrate is determined by titration with ammonium thiocrante using ferric ammonium sulphate indicator. Illustration graphically shows that the percentage of sulphur in the sample reduces with increase in time. Furthermore, it was noted that slight increase in quantity of kerosene fields better result.


Chapter One


Introduction

Kerosene is a petroleum distillate having a flash point of 380c and density of 0.82ca and mainly used as an. Illuminant when burned and a wick as well as in cooking stove and as solvent in process industries. The sulphur content of illuminating oil varies greatly with the type of oil and the lese to which it is to be put into. In general, sulphur or content is important only when oil is to be burned under conditions where the sulphur dioxide that may evolve in the course of combustion must be limited or reduced. This could be found lamps and heating equipments. At maximum, the sulphur content specification for kerosene is 0.13%

Light odourless paraffin’s can be the primary product used specially as non- aromatic solvents. This apparently is extensively used in paint and gerosol industries. Consequently light odourless kerosene is also used in aviation turbines and jet fuel for air crafts. Jet fuel is simple kerosene which has been subjected to appropriate treatment to remove the impurities. Such impurities include mercaptans sulphur, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gum etc. this impurities can be detected in the petroleum products using standard test methods which are extensive elaborated in this work and however removal of these impurities using chemical method. Some of the test methods include, colour indicate method, potentiomentric method mostly applied in kerosene aviation turbine and distillate fuels etc.

Among others in removal of these impurities mostly mercaptan sulphur in kerosene the following regents in colour indicator method are used. Then included silver Nitrate (A2N03) 0.LN, Ammonium thiocerante (NH4 CNS) 0.025N ferric Ammonium sulphate indicator (ALUM) etc.


Chapter Five


Discussion / Concluision

This method describes for the determination of mercaptan sulphur in fuels containing 0.003-0.01% by weight of mercaptan sulphur

Finally, 200ml of kerosene was contacted with calcium oxide in sorption column and left for 48hours . after the given contact time it was observed that the colour of the kerosene had been changed to water-white indicating higher purity. However from the results gotten from analytical evolution and the consequent graph show that effective absorption did not take place yet using 20g ca0. the values from the plot were fluctuating owing to insufficient absorbent ie ca0.

Consequently second experiment was carried out with same volume of kerosene and 30g of calcium oxide (ca0). The result obtained were better with better colour, indicating higher absorption. The plots followed a logical sequent though at a point absorption was constant throughout still owing to insufficient absorbent to reduce the mercaptan sulphur t a reasonable percent

However, it is indicative that addition of more quantity of absorbent (ca0) yield better result therefore from the above result it is obvious that kerosene could desulphurised conveniently and at heaper cost.


Recommendation

For higher efficiency in absorption process done in this report, it is recommended that the quantity of ca0 which is used as an absorbent in the process be increase to about 60-70gm per 200ml of kerosene. This ratio is proven to yield better results.


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