Design And Simulation Of A Microprocessor- Based Industrial Arm

Computer Science Project Material with Source Code Included

Computer Science Project Material with Source Code Included


This study was carried out on the design and simulation of a microprocessor- based industrial arm. Robots are used for the most boring and repetitive jobs in manufacturing. The military and police use robots for dangerous jobs, such as manipulating explosive devices. In this project of simulation of industrial industrial arm to pick and place like in cement factory at rotary packing machine, the conventional packing system is working manually by hand which need more labors to accomplish the packing process and also require a great effort from these labors which will lead to increase human error ratio. Due to that has been simulate industrial industrial arm using microcontroller ATmega16 in Proteus software and BASCOM-AVR program to get a good result to be implemented to industrial application in Cement Company of bag applicator.

First, we used Proteus to draw control circuit of microcontroller, stepper motor and start stop push bottom with BASCOM-AVR program to programming code of microcontroller. Also, we do more experiment in circuit and code with corrected more time to achieve good result. This design intends to investigate the design and simulation to control of a 3 DOF industrial industrial arm by using stepper motors and microcontroller, the industrial arm will be controlled via the designed controller and it will be able to grab, pick up and move objects to desire point; we have arm to put empty bag in rotary packing machine and drop the fully bag in another way which like belt conveyer, The simulation results have given the positions of the motors to take and put the cement bag.

Table of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Problem Statement
  • 1.3 Proposed Solutions
  • 1.4 Objectives
  • 1.5 Methodology
  • 1.6 Thesis Outlines

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.1.1 The Human Arm
  • Shoulder
  • elbow
  • wrist
  • 2.1.2 Robots Definition
  • 2.1.3 The Industrial arm
  • 2.1.4 Industrial arm Design
  • 2.1.5 Techniques of Moving aIndustrial arm
  • Motor
  • Servo Motor
  • 2.1.6 Sensor which been used in Robotics
  • 2.2 Related Works

Chapter Three

System Components

  • 3.1 Requirements and Components
  • 3.1.1 The Robotic Controller
  • 3.1.2 The Industrial arm
  • 3.1.3 Actuator of the Robot
  • 3.1.4 End – Effector
  • 3.1.5 Sensor of the Robot
  • 3.2 ATmega16 Architecture
  • 3.2.1 Memory
  • 3. 2.2Clock
  • 3.2.3 CPU
  • 3.2.4 Input/output (I/O)
  • 3.2.5 Timers
  • 3.3 Pin Description and Configurations
  • 3.4 Power Supply
  • 3.5 Design of Cement Packing Machine
  • 3.5.1 Cement Dispatch as key Factor
  • 3.6 What Is Angular Speed?
  • 3.6.1 The relation between Angular Speed and Linear Speed

Chapter Four

Design and Simulation

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 The Design and Simulation of Bag Applicator
  • 4.3 The Relation between Bag Applicator& Cement Packer
  • 4.4 The Design of Bag Applicator by Arduino
  • 4.5 The Bag Applicator results

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the study

Most industrial arm system are driven from magnetic tape or paper tape. A few are driven by a computer which enables them to make decisions.

  1. Using the same computer handles task and trajectory planning as well as controlling the trajectory of the industrial arm system and hand by computer first calculates a trajectory and then executes it by driving the arm along it. Two exception to the kind of system architecture are the control system proposed for the Robot Popeye at the Charles stark draper laboratory.
  2. The stand ford research institute unmated control system is composed of a PDP-10 time-shared computers as a command computer,PDP-15 as a control computer and a Nova 1210 as a sensor.
  3. The system described here consist of a supervisory computer which handles scene analysis, task and trajectory planning routines and a microcomputer which control arm motions, the supervisory computer can be a minicomputer or a time- shared computer.

In the system under development, a HP-2100A is used as the supervisory computer and an Intel MCS-4 microcomputer as a control processor. The micro-compution monitors arm and hand joint potentiometers as well as hand touch and slip sensors and power supply pressure sensors, and maintains current joint position in the stationary mode.

Arm motion is described to the microcomputer in the form of job. A job consists of a sequence of macro-command with joint positions and constraints on force levels and trajectories. An example for a simple job would be!

  1. Move to position,
  2. Hold project,
  3. Move to new position,
  4. Release object.

After transferring the job description to the MCS-4, the HP-2100A continues processing global routines. The MCS-4 interprets the macro- commands, executes them utilizing the feedback information from joint potentiometers and sensors, and interrupts the HP-2100 when the job is terminated. It then transfers the final joint positions and status of the sensors to the HP- 2100A and holds the joint in position until the next job request is received.

With the growth of technology, the need of new devices grows accordingly. Computer and electronic sciences is mostly premier in raising the new technologies. Of course the new technology could affect different engineering fields. For instance, if the robotics and artificial intelligence are considered, it reveals that the technology with its high potential, affected many different fields of studies. Therefore, related fields of study could be combined to generate new technologies that can be used in wide fields.

The robots play important roles in our lives and are able to perform the tasks which cannot be done by humans in terms of speed, accuracy and difficulty. Robots can be employed to imitate human behaviours and then apply these behaviours to the skills that leads the robot to achieve a certain task. They do not get tired or face the commands emotionally, and since they are designed by humans. They can be programmed and expected to obey and perform some specific tasks. In some cases the use of a robotic hand becomes remarkable. Robotic is applied in different forms and fields to simulate human behaviour and motions.

Our daily life is virtually affected by robots .The idea of robotic is to create practical and useful robots that facilitate our daily tasks. Because of the independency of the robots, they have longer life time comparing with the humans and can be helpful in industry, dangerous tasks and nursing homes. Most of tools, vehicles, electronic devices and cuisine are built and prepared with the help of industrial robots. For instance, there are industrial robot assembly lines which help in many cases that can operate more accurate and faster than humans. Recently, robots operate in almost all human labors mostly in the fields which are unhealthy or impractical for workers. This fact causes the workers to have more free time to spend on skilled professions including the programming, maintenance and operation of the robots which are essential. There are situations where a robot is a replacement for human because the human does not have the capability to work under the specific conditions, such as working in the space, under the water and etc., unless the person is equipped with some expensive special clothing and equipment. Therefore, while designing a robot, considering the factors such as concept and techniques, artificial intelligence and cognitive science are essential in order to obtain an effective design .The other situation is when the robot is used to ease the actions done by the human or the human is handicapped.

Obviously, building aindustrial arm is not a new idea, but still the design and the specifications can differ from other designs. For instance, the circuitry, degree of freedom (DOF), algorithm, program, attachments, equipment, accuracy and speed, completely depend on the designer’s tact.

The challenge is to be able to perform some physical tasks close to a human’s hand actions, such as replacement and grabbing, under the conditions where a human hand is not a particular solution. Therefore, aindustrial arm can be designed to perform the required actions which can be controlled by the humans. The industrial arm has a main processor which is using a microcontroller [1].

Most robots are designed to be a helping hand. They help people with tasks that would be difficult, unsafe, or boring for a real person to do alone. At its simplest, a robot is machine that can be programmed to perform a variety of jobs, which usually involve moving or handling objects. Robots can range from simple machines to highly complex, computer controlled devices. Many of today’s robots are industrial arms. In this project, the focus topic is on one very “flexible” kind of robot, which looks similar to a certain part of human body. It is called a jointed-arm robot [4].

1.2 Problem Statement

There has been a growing realization of the need and importance of industrial arm service because of its role in a developing society like ours. It is because of this role, like speeding of business activities working activities, engaging easy performance of job are expected. It is necessary to find out the problem people encounter with the heavy project of construction. The heavy materials are being handled by the machine called microprocessor-based industrial arm. In fact, we have many problem that this machine can solve like picking hot objects in a industry etc. If solved, it will surely change the lives of our people and also prejudices in accepting the development as a result of this, the project work is titled the industrial arm.

1.3 Proposed Solutions

To design and simulate industrial industrial arm using microcontroller in Proteus software and Bascom-AVR to get a good results to be implemented to industrial application in Cement Company of bag applicator.

1.4 Thesis Aim and Objectives

When make the factory fully automation it will make working easy and do hard job with high speed and best accuracy…

  1. Design the bag applicator to work instead labors in Cement Company.
  2. Simulate the bag applicator into Proteus software and give certain position angle of motors.
  3. To do desire job pick and place empty cement bag simulated the bag applicator.
  4. To evaluate the bag applicator using stepper and servo motor and compare which one gives good accuracy.

1.5 Methodology

The procedure of design and simulation an articulated arm robot using a microcontroller and stepper motors and the building procedure consists of building the kinematic structure of robot, hardware design and implementation, software design and microcontroller programming.

The motion of the bag applicator is controlled via microcontroller signals which are generated by microcontroller and the effect of these signals on the stepper motors using the software simulation and repeated the experiment more time.

The software was used Proteus to draw control circuit of microcontroller, stepper motor and start stop push bottom and BASCOM-AVR program to programming code of microcontroller. Also we do more experiment in circuit and code with corrected more time to achieve good result.

1.6 Thesis Outlines

The thesis contains five chapters, Chapter one is an introduction that includes preface, problem statement of the project. Chapter two explains a literature review of the robotics and background of the study. Chapter three discusses the system components of the project including the tools and requirements and chapter four explain the simulation and results. Finish of the thesis with solid conclusion and good recommendations for future work are

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

In this project the simulation of industrial arm or the bag applicator was done successfully after deep investigation and analysis of the bag applicator, industrial arms design and simulation concepts and theories for put the empty cement bag in the rotary packing machine, Proteus was chosen as a graphical and electronic model creator that deals with the design and application of robots in the presentation. The simulation covers different angle of motor to evaluate the position of the bag applicator design. Moreover simulation environment help to test these application without the cost effectiveness of building robots and selecting optimal materials, component, dimensions and Accuracy.

5.2 Recommendations

In the end of this research, some points could be taken as a suggested future works

  1. Designs the industrial arm with 6 DOF because are enough to allow the robot to reach all position and orientations in three-dimensional space.
  2. If you will design hardware, implementing the inverse kinematics technique in industrial arm.
  3. Equipping the industrial arm with sensors (proximity, tactile) will be more sensitive and good accurate.
  4. Design and implement electrical circuit board to control the industrial arm.
  5. Design and implement the hardware of bag applicator to do desired job.

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