Design And Production Of Ceiling Board Using Plaster Of Paris (P.O.P) Gypsum Material

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Design And Production Of Ceiling Board Using Plaster Of Paris (P.O.P) Gypsum Material


Abstract


This project, Design and production of ceiling board using Plaster of Paris (POP) Gypsum materials. Gypsum is basically the raw material required in the manufacturing Plaster of Paris (POP) which posses an outstanding property and a good material for producing ceiling board.

The materials procured for the project are plaster of Paris, fiber, water and mould. The equipment used for the project are scrapper, measuring tape, mixing bowl, bucket. Firstly, water was poured into the container (mixing bowl) and plaster of Paris sprinkled, two minutes was waited for absorption and then the mortar was mixed with hand and shaked vigorously to obtain a fully homogeneous mixture and thereafter the mortar was sprayed on the mould and fiber was added which serves as reinforcement.

Water absorption test was carried out on the sample and the result indicated that plaster of Paris (POP) ceiling board has an average 8.4 percent water absorptivity compare to Asbestos with 0.5 percent. Therefore plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board absorb water readily in case there is water leakage of the roof. Flexural strength test was carried out and the result obtained showed that plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board has a mean flexural strength of 11.4 N/mm2 and Asbestos has an average flexural strength of about 1.00 N /mm2.

To this end, it is proved that plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board posses sufficient strength and it is durable for Civil Engineering works.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

This project deals with the design and production of ceiling board using Plaster of Paris [POP] gypsum materials. Plaster of Paris [POP] is a white powdery mixture of gypsum. It has been named such because the first deposit of gypsum was found is Paris. This powder when mixed with water solidifies, but without losing its volume. During manufacturing process, the gypsum is heated and as such, it does not necessarily require any high heat treatment like ceramics and clays [Worrall 1999]. Because of its property to harden with just water, it is used in a number of areas, but most notably for molding decorative objects.

According to Cornelis and Hurlbut (1985), plaster results from the calcinations of gypsum (CaS04.2H20), which partially dehydrates to produce a hemi-hydrate (CaS04.1/2H2O). Although plaster of paris a widely used today: its origin dated 9,000 years old and were found in Amotolia and Syria. It is also know fact those 5000 years ago, the Egyptians burnt gypsum in open-air fire, then crushed it into powder and finally mixed with water to make jointing material for the blocks of monuments, used model of plaster taken directly from the human body.

Plaster of Paris came about in 17000’s as Paris was already the “capital of plaster” (Plaster of Paris) since all the walls of wooden houses were covered with plaster, as a protection against fire. The king of France had enforced this rule after the bug London fire literally destroyed this city in 1666. Large gypsum deposits near paris have long been mined a manufacture “Plaster of Paris.

Gypsum is a sedimentary rock, which settled though the evaporation of sea water, tapped in lagoons. According to the nature of its impurities, gypsum can show various colours, ranging from white to brown, yellow, gray and pink.
In order to produce high-quality plaster of paris, great effort needed to be put in clearing and classifying gypsum in order to prepare it for plaster. The chemical reaction is:

(CaS04.2H2O) + Heat = (CaS04.1/2H2O) + 1.5H2O

Deer et al. (1992) describe plaster of paris is a calcium sulfate hem-hydrate. (CaS04.1/2H2O) derived from gypsum. It is obtained by firing this mineral at relatively low temperature and then reducing it to powder. The hem-hydrate is also known as stucco or plaster of paris- probably so named because of the very large deposit of pure gypsum found beneath paris. When water is added to the stucco, the material rehydrates to give a solid mass of gypsum. This rehydration is accompanied by an increase in temperature and a slight expansion of the plaster, causing the gypsum to perfectly fill a mould.

Most of the plaster, produced is used in the production of Gib board and fibrous plaster, with about 80% being used for Gib alone. This is because plaster is of great importance to the building industry as a fire retardant. When slowly release 200g of water in the form of steam. This water acts as a heat barrier, ensuing that the temperature behind the plaster board does not rise appreciably above the boiling point of water and thus preventing the fire from crossing over the board.

As there is growing building construction activities and advancement in technology, POP gypsum board are used in Houses and offices and indeed all type of building where people congregate such as schools, halls, churches, Mosques, etc.

Plaster of Paris ceiling board provides more aesthetic outlook, offer adequate resistance to heat and sufficient resistance to fire


1.1 Statement of Problem

Recent studies indicate that asbestos ceiling is hazardous material from the health point of view. A particular type of lung cancer called mesothelioma, is caused by asbestos regular lung cancer may be a sign of asbestos poisoning as well.

Therefore, there is need for alternative ceiling material which is durable, reliable and affordable.


1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this project is to design and produce ceiling board using plaster of paris (POP) gypsum materials.

The objectives of the study is highlighted below:

  1. To produce durable light weight building material for ceiling
  2. To determine the strength of the ceiling board
  3. To determine its durability.
  4. To determine the volume and density of the ceiling board.

1.3 Justification of the Study

The use of plaster of paris [POP] gypsum ceiling board for ceiling finishing should be adopted and improved because the problems associated with asbestos, which have been used as ceiling finishes for years but with the use of plaster of paris [POP] gypsum material as ceiling finishes which offers sufficient sound insulation and considerable absorption of heart from the roof and hence provide employment opportunity to the producer.


1.4 Scope of the Study

The scope and limitation of this project is basically the design and production of ceiling board using plaster of paris [POP] gypsum material. In the project , the density of the sample will be determined and the flexural test will be carried out to determine the strength of the sample made up of composite quantity of POP plaster, water and fibre [know as villas] when subjected to loading.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Generally, ceiling is an overhead interior or exterior surface that covers the upper limit of the room. It is not generally considered as a structural element but a finished surface concealing the underside of the roof above.
Due to the dominance of asbestos as ceiling material in building with its health hazard, effort was made to produce ceiling board from Gypsum materials.

It was deduced from water absorption test carried out on the samples and the result indicated that plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board has an average 8.4 percent water absorptivity compare to Asbestos 0.5 percent. Therefore plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board absorb water readily incase there is water leakage of the roof.

Also, it was deduced from flexural strength test carried out on the samples and the result obtained shows that plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board has a mean flexural stress of 11.4 N/mm2 and Asbestos has an average flexural stress of about 1.00 N /mm2. To this end, it is proved that plaster of paris (POP) ceiling board posses sufficient strength and it is durable.


5.2 Recommendation

The following recommendations were made from the project:-

  1. The ceiling board posses sufficient strength and it is more durable, therefore it is good for use as ceiling finishing
  2. The sheet are sound absorbers, electrical insulator, and therefore can be used as demarcating panels.
  3. The ceiling board offers sufficient resistance to fire.
  4. It absorbs water more readily in case there is water leakage of the roof.
  5. The production of plaster board put little pressure on the environment thus; it is not hazardous to the health.

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