Design Of Paint Factory Makurdi

Project and Seminar Material for Architecture

Design Of Paint Factory Makurdi

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table Of Content
  • Abstract

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Architectural Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives
  • 1.4 Motivation
  • 1.5 Aims
  • 1.6 Scope of Work
  • 1.7 Research Methodology
  • 1.8 Limitation of Research
  • 1.9 Importance of the Project
  • 1.10 Historical Development of Factory
  • 1.11 History of Paint Manufacture

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Research Process
  • 2.2 The Need and Use of the Building Type
  • 2.3 Basic Components of Paint (Raw Materials)
  • 2.4 Manufacturing Process
  • 2.4.1 Principles of Paint Manufacture
  • 2.4.2 Process Description of Paint Production
  • 2.5 The Products
  • 2.6 Plant and Machinery
  • 2.6.1 Methods and Conditions of Installations
  • 2.7 Planning Principles of Factories
  • 2.8 Factory Act
  • 2.9 Efficient and Flexible Factory Layout
  • 2.10 Factors of The Element of Production
  • 2.11 Planned Expansion of Contemprary Factories
  • 2.12 Material Handling

Chapter Three

Case Study

  • Introduction
  • 3.1 Case-Study One:International Paints West Africa Limited, Ikeja Lagos.
  • 3.1.1 Background Information/Location
  • 3.1.2. Products
  • 3.1.3 Factory Layout
  • 3.1.4 Production Process
  • 3.1.5 Plant and Machinery
  • 3.1.6 Lighting
  • 3.1.7 Services
  • 3.1.8 Materials of Construction
  • 3.2 Case-Study Two: Master-Piece Chemical Company Limited, Oji River.
  • 3.2.1 Background Information/Location
  • 3.2.2 Products
  • 3.2.3 The Factory Layout
  • 3.2.4 Factory Process
  • 3.2.5 Production Process
  • 3.2.6 Raw Materials
  • 3.2.7 Plant And Machinery
  • 3.2.8 Lighting
  • 3.3 Case Study Three: Haymes Paint Factory
  • 3.3.1 Location: Ballarat, Victoria Austrailia
  • 3.3.2 Brief History
  • 3.3.3 Products
  • 3.3.4 Appraisals
  • 3.4 General Deductions/Lesson From Case Study

Chapter Four

Site Analysis, Summary Of Planning & Design Consideration

  • Location: Site Analysis
  • 4.1 Site Selection Criteria
  • 4.1.1 General Industrial Location Factors
  • 4.2 Project Site Location
  • 4.3 Site Analysis
  • 4.4 Design Considerations
  • 4.5 Space Requirement
  • 4.6 Functional Relationships of Spaces
  • 4.8 Organisational Chart And Labour Strenght
  • 4.9 Programming

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Design Syntheses
  • 5.2 Design Philosophy and Concept
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Reference
  • Foot Note
  • Bibliography
  • Articles
  • Unpublished Articles

Chapter One


1.1 Background To The Study

Paint Factory or plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers process raw materials into paint. Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the industrial revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry and workshops.

Paint is a subdivision of surface coating. It is a relatively opaque solid coating applied as thin layer whose films are usually formed by polymerization of polyunsaturated oil. However, other subdivisions of surface coating include: varnishes (clear coating), enamels (pigmented varnishes), lacquers (film formed by evaporation only), printing inks and polishes. Paints generally have very low thermal conductivity, electrically inert and can be washed and cleaned. The various raw materials for making paints include pigments, vehicle, alkyd resins, surfactants, solvents (thinners) and colouring matters.

Paints are classified into two principal types:

Resin based paints (Gloss finishes) and Latex based paints (Emulsion paints). The major difference between the two is only in the types of vehicle used and cost.

  • Resin based paints are used for exterior and interior surfaces and are dry to a lustrous or shinny finish.
  • Emulsion (Latex) paint involves the emulsion of 2-phases one of which is water and any other phase.

Classically, emulsion is a suspension of one phase in another. Latex paints have as their major film forming constituent synthetic resin latex with or without other film forming constituents added in an oil-water emulsion type system. The continuous phase consists of an alkali – dispersed hydropholic colloid in water and contains two more different types of particles in suspension, styrene –butadeux (SBR) copolymer which was the original quality film former in emulsion paint. Polyvinyl acetate (PVA), acrylic and PVA acrylics copolymers have largely replaced SBR as film former.

From these, resins and latex are made objects with a wide range of colours and texture found in household wares, building materials, electrical and electronic appliances, automobile and aeronautics, clothing, building structures etc. in short it s difficult to imagine contemporary society without painting (colours).

Paints are the material employed as finishing for other materials. They are used to protect metals, timber and plastered surface from the effect of weather, heat, moisture, gases etc., thereby improving their appearance. Paints are classified into oil, water and cement and bituminom paints. There are also special paints used for special purpose e.g. heat resisting, fire proofing, chlorinated rubber paint etc.

Paint factory is regarded as an important or essential industry in many country because of it effect and function in the environment. Finally, this project (paint factory) will help in improving on the face lift of Makurdi as the capital of Benue State as well as the job opportunities which our teeming youths desire.

1.2 Statement Of Architectural Problem

In an industrial building of this nature, it is impossible to solve all architectural problems involved. However, every building has a general architectural problem that has to be solved towards the realization of the design. But, there are some specific problems that are unique to individual projects, for example a paint factory.

Subsequently, the core problem this project seek to solve is centered on its purpose; a compromise between man and machine. And this involves a careful flow in the synthesis of:

  1. Efficient work flow
  2. Making a statement to the society reflecting the mass production nature of the paint factory. o Advertising the paint products to the society as well as creating a welcome impact.
  3. Expressing orderliness and aesthetic appeal.
  4. Creating openness in plant to give an impression of attractive working conditions, efficient production and painstaking devotion to the excellence of paint products.

1.3 Objectives

The principal objective of this project is to provide an environment capable of meeting the needs of the people of Makurdi and Nigeria as a whole by providing them with a well defined paint factory which is ultra-modern and which will meet their several needs in terms of seeking a solution for good appearance and packaging of good products.

Other objectives include:

  1. To create versatile, adaptable and flexible form for easy expansion with minimum damage.
  2. To provide a good production layout with no conflict between raw and finished goods and personnel in circulation.
  3. To create an ideal factory architecture and to introduce a level of automation in the proposed paint factory in Nigeria.
  4. Finally, to help in the state and Federal Government Programme in rural development and this could be achieved through industrial development.

1.4 Motivation

Establishing a house or a commercial space does not stop at having the edifice erected on a piece of land. This is since you have to make sure that your structure preserves its excellent condition so that you can enjoy your investment for a long time. There are many industrial methods that you can do to keep your home or your workspace in good condition, but one of the most effective steps that you should take is to have your walls re-applied with the right paint.

For decades now, net and sprays have been the only effective methods for controlling the mosquitoes that causes malaria and dengue. I think by introducing the factory, it will lay more emphasize on protection by inventing a way of embedding pesticide in microcapsule stirred into house paints. And this insecticide will be realized slowly from the paint and will remain effective for two to four years, while spray will be typically re-applied at least every 6 months. The paint will act like a vaccine for houses and buildings.

The minute amount of pesticides released vastating from to insect the. paint won’t be

The introduction or provision of paint factory in Makurdi will help to increase the effectiveness of other producing industries around e.g.

  1. Most industries producing steel and aluminum building cladding.
  2. For yatch, small boats and craft, fishing fleets manufacturers.
  3. For all furniture and plywood industries
  4. For most petrochemical plants-protective coating
  5. For all kinds of vessels that visit Nigeria port.
  6. For manufacturers of refrigeration, bicycles, other household articles, drums and industrial components –powder paints.
  7. For building industries etc

Therefore, one should realize that this material is utilized in many industries and that such service industry should be established for the propagation of other.

Finally, I intend to increase the awareness of this service industry in Nigeria, and s that’whatprompted my motivation towards proposing this project.

1.5 Aims

The ultimate aim of this project is to create, functional, simple, pleasing, economical, orderly, flexible, safe and convenient industrial building –paint factory.

And to satisfy the key words of the aims, the following are inevitable:

  1. To achieve an effective and efficient design for a factory with a serious view to flexibility, adaptability and versatility of the building structures. Therefore, the aim is to realize a purely functional planning with a specific purpose of smooth and maximum efficient working of the different machineries, the administration of the complex and the overall production.
  2. To create a system that will allow personnel; operational and administrative to enjoy efficient and pleasant working environment.
  3. To provide efficient circulation system between the individual units of the factory and within the layout as a whole thereby facilitating easy movement and assemblage of raw materials and distribution of finished products.
  4. To enhance the psychology of workers towards efficiency by creating an aesthetical industrial architecture.
  5. To reflect the use to which the factory is to be put into which will be in form of an advertisement for the products.
  6. There will be a deviation from the old idea which emphasizes much on mass to a modern approach which gives emphasis on lines and planes (volume).

1.6 Scope Of Work

The factory will undertake on mass production basis, the manufacture of paints and other paint products. It will also consist of four major paints of an industrial building;

  1. Research
  2. Manufacturing
  3. Administration and
  4. Welfare.

The research includes laboratory and library to investigate and recommend possible way of producing better products and raw materials.

The manufacturing section, according to the manufacturing process, include: dispersion, mixing, sieving and canning.

The administration comprises of offices, personnel and sales while

The welfare section includes the factory cline and staff canteen.

Other components include the maintenance block, staff products, and delivery visito bays and yards etc.

1.7 Research Methodology

To really collect important information towards the realization of this project and to make an important contribution to Architecture, some research activities had been carried out and data collected through;

  1. Visits to existing paint factories site of the projects to determine their production processes, organizational chart and determine the requirement and conditions to be fulfilled in the setting up of such factory.
  2. Use of libraries, research institute, books, journals and unpublished manuscript of thesis reports.
  3. Visits to relevant Government establishment like the ministry of commerce and industry, for collection of data, byelaws, history and other important information.
  4. Personal interview of some people.
  5. Internet.

1.8 Limitation Of Research

Due to the limitation of standard paint factories in Nigeria, one is limited to researching with only the small scale private paint factories.

In researching with the private factories it was discovered that the factories were over protective of their setting. They feared that their competitors might get hold of information given out for the research and have a hold over them. Some of them that co-operated discourage photographs.

Also the fact that the country is not in peace due to the Boko Haram and other threats, the factories are conscious and at the same time trying to protect their life and properties.

Materials on paint factories are not much available in libraries, research institutes, records and documents on paint factories in Nigeria.

1.9 Importance Of The Project

The importance or the breaks through this project hope to achieve are:

  1. To provide a comprehensive setting for paint industry in Nigeria in order to help improve the economy attains technology and industrial independence.
  2. To create job opportunities for the increasing labour forces.
  3. It will help in saving foreign exchange by providing goods which would have been purchased abroad.

1.10 Historical Development Of Factory

The factory began with the shop-connected residence as in Ancient Egypt, then the open air workshops and the home the home industry as in Greece. Then, some specialized craft and trades like metal smiting, carpentry, pottery, shoe making were home industry; therefore, operation were in dwelling houses.

When the need for expansion began, separate work shed from homes was realized. However, this did not survive for too long, for with the collapse of the Roman Empire, the industry reverted to its original dwelling-house status – the gradual detachment from home only started again with the emergence of the guild system between the 12th and 15th centuries.

By this period, the trades men were engaged in producing stained glass, pottery, tapestries and metal work in great quantities – all operations being carried out in small shops.

This stage was followed by the beginning of the 15th century, by the emergence of large city workshop; derived from the strong influence of the monasteries, and the basomial manors.

Then came the modern factory system during the 2nd half of the 18th century. This stage in the factory evolution was made possible by certain technological inventions like the Spinning Jenny, Samuel Cromptoris mule in 1779, Edmund Cartwrights power loom in 1785 and James Watts steam engine, also in 1785. Manufacturing at this stage developed to much a high level that the whole of Europe was ploughed into the great industrial Revolution.

The industrial Revolution with the use of capitation ushered in such keen completion among early industrialists that some old buildings and other available large spaces were acquired for loom shops and other industries. This was the period for birth of industrial architecture from the period of birth to the present day, Industrial Building Types or Industrial Designs has passed through three main stages;

  1. Period of construction in wood and stone with water power.
  2. Period of construction in bricks and metal (cast and wrought iron at first, steel later) with steam power.
  3. And period of modern construction in reinforced concrete with electricity as a source of power.

By 1925, this last phase experienced a new architecture creation – INTERNATIONAL STYLE – which was first noticed in the industrial designs of Peter Behrens in Germany and Auguste Perret in France between 1911 and 1924.

These works and most other modern examples revealed the design philosophy of almost all today’s meritorious industrial building as an emphasis on lines and planes instead of mass. Standard design became:

  1. A long rectangular multi-window structure with a central cupolar or furnace itself.
  2. Large monitors for interior day lighting.
  3. A possible massing of all units of an industrial building into one imposing single structure depending, however on the sizes of the individual units of the complex

1.11 History Of Paint Manufacture

Paint is a thin protective or decorative coat or a subdivision of surface coating. Painting, the art of laying colour on a surface, therefore necessitated the development of paint.

Paint was first developed in the prehistoric times when the early men recorded most of their activities in colours on the walls of their caves. These crude paints consisted of coloured earth or clays suspended in water. However, the use of paint dated as far back as 1500 B.C. when the earliest paint works discovered in caves of Lascaux, France, Attemira and Spain were believed to have been done.

The Egyptians artist, during the early civilization was a paint formulator. He devised his paint mostly from natural pigments from resins, chalk, tale, clay etc. this could be regarded as mixture. However, by 1500 B.C. they imported such dies as indigo and madder to make blue and red pigments. By 1000 B.C. they had developed a varnish from the gum of Arcacis tree (gum Arabic) which contributed to the performance of their arts.

Coloured crayon pigments and clay binder were used in Asia, while before 600 B.C. calcined mixtures and organic pigments were developed.

Vehicles were prepared from gum Arabic, eggulute, gelatin and bees max. In our local traditional architecture, ‘Uri’, ‘Nzu’, cowdung etc. were used to prepare paints.

During the medieval and classical period more specialized form of paint was developed. This is known as oil paint. The substrate is generally canvas although other surfaces may be used. The colour consists of concentrated pure pigments ground to a thixotropic paste in refined or bleached vegetable oil, generally linseed. The pigments have an influence on the drying rate uniform. This is done by making the vehicle of a fast-drying colour more saturated oil such as popyseed, and adding a small fraction or cobalt soap to the blacks and other slow drivers.

The discovery of oil paints brought a great improvement in the art of painting. The 15th Century brought with it the knowledge of perspective in which objects could be represented in three dimensions. In this period, however, and to a more partial extent even is the earlier classical epoch, efforts were being made to widen the horizon of painting and to embrace with it the scope of its representations not only solid objects in themselves, but much objects as a whole in space, in due relation to each other and to the universe at large.

It was reserved, however, for the masters of 17th century perfectly to realize this ideal art, and in their hands painting as an art of representation is widened out of its fullest possible limits and the whole of nature in all its aspects becomes for the first time the subject of the picture. The development of painting since the 17th century gave rise to the modern and more specialized method of paint production.

Chapter Five

5.1 Design Syntheses

Architecture is normally conceived (designed) and realized (built) in response to an existing set of conditions. This condition in most cases is purely functional or may represent social, economic, political, or symbolic intentions in varying degrees. In all cases it is assumed the existing set of conditions – the problems – is less than satisfactory and that a new set of conditions – a solution – would be desirable. The proposed paint factory is seen as a response to the existing set of conditions, that is, the problems created by the present state of various paint factories, which in most cases, is unsatisfactory.

The recognition and identification of the problematic conditions and the decision to find a solution constitute the first phase of any design process. This will be done based on the statement of the major project goals and objectives, followed by the design philosophy, concept and realization.

5.2 Design Philosophy And Concept

Factories can be seen as mere housing facilities for a certain layout of machines and the necessary personnel facilities. Subsequently, there is a trend toward enlarging selling or abandoning the system whenever its operation starts. We expect a little flexibility in manufacturing operation and we design for it.

Therefore, the designer takes his mind off from institutional monumentality, in favour of flexibility, expandability and even demountability.

Industrial architecture at times places a difficult decision to the designer on whether to house the machine or the man. Although the operator will be regarded as merely servicing automatic machinery, the designer will still face resistance since the operator will expect the same kind of air conditioned building to work in, that he always had. At times, weather conditions would make his maintenance and operational work difficult. However, the occurrence of bad weather and breakdown would surely be in frequent, so infrequent as to make it economically unsound to design and conventional building cover merely for machine maintenance.

At any rate, it would be healthful to think of the industrial plant more as a “shell over a mechanical process” than as the standard home of a corporation and try to design for fast-changing times.

The reception room, to which the public is admitted, should display the quality and character of the firm it represents. It should convey a cohesive impression of operation and emphasis the best point of employee’s facilities.

In some industrial architecture, the visitor’s entrance has been a forgotten corner of the industrial plant. Usually, it comprises of the receptionist, display areas, waiting area and the various charts of the production operation. However, industrial architecture should thoroughly integrate the reception area with the rest of the facilities. This facility should be a bold element in an otherwise severely straight forward building and should be a starting point or otherwise a working pivot point around which other facilities exist.

Subsequently, atmospheric and environmental controls are rendered essential by the nature of the process in an industrial building. Usually the raw materials, finished products and machinery are seriously affected by temperature and humidity. These environmental factors usually affect workers psychology, performance and efficiency, although the healthy workers can adapt quite readily to a considerable variation in temperature, humidity or ventilation. However, the stress of compensating is sometimes cumulative and can lead to sudden collapse in the event of a sudden task stress. Most times there is more effect on workers performance and morale when noise, vibration and atmospheric contamination are not properly controlled.

Therefore, it is important to consider all the potential environmental hazards in terms of system design control; as opposed to discovering that such hazards exist after the system is designed. There should be an effort towards the realization of a space that people will enjoy and equally enhance the optimal performance of the plant.

Additionally, industrial architecture should consider workers to be human beings as well as a production unit. The task is primarily one of arranging the system so that Managers and Workers can meet on common ground and spend time with each other. A meeting ground which
should be ideal in its standard of working conditions, beautiful in appearance, conducive for both executive and workers. Therefore, there should be an effort towards the creating of a common ground that people will enjoy and which can be viewed from both production and office spaces, which will also serve as a relief from the production spaces and a pleasant meeting ground for all level of employees at the plant. This should be an environment that is visually connected, but atmospherically isolated or common with the climate outside.

It is the considered opinion of this project to reflect the mass production nature of this factory whose dominant role is manufacturing.

Besides, it will also satisfy the utilitarian needs of efficient work flow of the production lines and its architecture is supposed to make certain statements to the society.

In realizing, its concept the project will make some additional achievements.

The function, a systematic and hierarchical flow of space from the public to the semi-public and then to the private zones integrated with a flow from the noisy to the semi-noisy and then to the quite zone. The factory will be arranged and subdivided into these zones based on the disposition to public contact and noise generation and accommodation (See Chapter Four for the zoning of the functions).

This concept will rely heavily on expressing in the design the note of orderliness and the appeal of aesthetics. This factory aesthetics will definitely be improved by the use of heights and volume differences to articulate the different units of the factory.

Beside the use of paint colouring to make and architectural statement will promote its image and expose its architectural and finishing possibilities. This will be achieved by the use of either steel or aluminium building cladding whose end uses entails the application of wide ranges of coil coating.

As a paint factory, colour will be used extensively to achieve a sense of impressions, each of which is calculated to perform an appropriate function for easy, comfortable seeing, for good cheer and even for aesthetic pleasure. Colour will also be used for other functions such as safety, cleanliness, psychology and at the same time advertise its products, their possibilities and potentials. (Refer to chapter 4 for colour recommendations). In the other hand, daylighting is desirable in working places and for their psychological reasons too. It is normal for the workers to have daylight in daylight hours and not shut away from nature. Usually windows are not relied on for ventilation in production spaces, therefore Air conditioning will be extensively used where necessary.

To facilitate this modern material handling, single storey building will be adopted for this project. It facilitates efficient arrangement of parts and assembly lines and also provides for ease of material handling by conveyors, monorails and forklifts or lift trucks. This one level building includes mezzanine, basement and penthouse areas.

5.3 Conclusion

In conclusion, manufacturing process is a sound economic based for the evolution of developed economics which affects the general well being of a nation through a judicious use of proceeds from the exports of manufactured products.

In order to support the welfare and services requirements of a developing nation like Nigeria, the government should over haul the industrialization policy with a view to breaking the unfavorable economic pattern of exporting raw materials to advanced metropolitan countries, from whom the finished products of these raw materials are imported into the country at petrochemical industries in the country will be of immense economic advantage that will help sustain the nation.

Therefore, the architect’s role in this matter, among the other things, is to provide a functional design that will not only observe all the important recommendations for a successful design but should also work toward the provision of factories that are economic in capital cost. The architect’s role should include the following:

  • Educating the industrialist on a need for future expansion
  • The importance of installing modern machinery
  • Diversification of production
  • Ensure good working conditions for staff.

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