Design And Manufacture A Fuel Less Generator

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME

Design And Manufacture A Fuel Less Generator


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

The knowledge you are about to learn is a serious combination of an engineering trend. And have something to do with the ALTERNATOR.

Here, we make use of a D.C .Motor (direct current motor), and it has two terminals. This D.C.Motor, have the capacity to generate 12volts and be use for practical alternating current. Alternating current is a voltage of like said 220volts – 240volts. All this simple generator generally known as “I better pass my neighbor” can be use for this practical engineering experiment.

What we have here is what we refer as a stator winding (i.e the generator coil). The stator winding have a three various outputs, it have the A.C. output, which the red wire gives us the positive, and the black wire gives us the negative. The capacitor wire, which can be any color, usually yellow in most generator and the diode wire, also can be any color but usually green in most generator.

If you don’t connect this winding to our capacitor, we wouldn’t be able to have our 220V- 240V. the green wire serve as the charging system and is going to be connected to our 12V battery. The voltage of the battery(12V) must tally with the capacity of the D.C.Motor (12V, for tiger generator) you are using. The green wire can be connected to our Diode. Then from the diode, you supply current directly back to the battery. The car battery can be 12Volts 45AMPERE, 60 AMPERE, 75AMP or 100 AMP or 120 AMP. Just note that the ampere is the strength of the battery and the amount of current it can produce and regulate. Make sure that the battery capacity tallies with that of the D.C.Motor.

We have what we know as ARMATURE, some people call it rotor and a lot of road side electricians call it AMURTURE. This armature from the supply of the D.C. Motor to the stator winding, immediately you pass current to the armature, there will be an interaction between the field (magnetic field) that have been created in the stator winding and the armature. The armature will be rotating inside the stator winding, a magnetic field will be created between the stator winding coil and the coil of the armature, thereby bring out energy. The energy can come in form of Direct Current, or can come in form of Alternating current, it all depends on the capacity of the alternator.

Now, what we usually use in Nigeria, is a system of Alternating current, which is from 220V to 240V and if we are able to produce a D.C with the combination of the alternator, it gives us an alternator and it gives us a result of 220V to 240V, that means the area of using fuel, will be off completely, because the battery will serve as our fuel.

We also have a crank shaft cut off. We decided to cut off one side of the shaft of crank shaft of pestle and rings, so that we can drill a hole in it, which goes directly to the D.C. motor and it connects the alternator. So, that gives us the combination of D.C. Motor and alternator.


1.2. Statement of the Problem

In this country, Nigeria, just like most developing countries in the world, we are faced with the challenges of light disruption. Continuous spending on fuelling and maintenance of our fuel generator, but now lets look at another alternative. Converting a fuelled generator into a fuel less generator and it has a low maintenance cost.


1.3. Objective of the Seminar

The aim of this project is to design and manufacture a fuel less generator, capable of producing 2 – 3 KW of electrical energy/ power. The objectives are:

  1. To design and manufacture of 3KVA fuel less generator.
  2. To evaluate the generator for performance.
  3. To explore an alternative which is affordable, convenient and efficient, just like our normal electricity. Here we will learn how to convert a fuel generator to a fuel less generator.

1.4. Significance of Study

Why is this study necessary?

This study, on how to convert a fuel generator to fuel less generator, Is becoming more necessary because, as long as the price of fuel is high and the Power Holdings Company of Nigeria (P.H.C.N) keep disappointing, it is recommended that one should fall back on this technology of Personal Electricity Generator (P.E.G).

One can use this fuel less generator to be charging car batteries and as well as using it to generate electricity for his shops, flats or rooms, thereby making money in the process.

The need to use in the school environment, like office, labs or even in the classrooms, as case maybe. Also, in tertiary institutions is also included.

This fuel less generator can be used to power and sustain a constant or stable electricity /current in a clinic, hospitals or even a maternity. Knowing full well that it can power and supply a stady current for more than 24 hours without a stop.

Shops / stalls owners can have this fuel less generator to attract more customers, by having steady power to make the customer feel comfortable.

Who will benefit?

This fuel less generator is beneficial to everyone both for the young or for the old. A family, travelling to the village or to a camp or even a vacation, can decide to carry one of this fuel less generator along to avoid disappointment by PHCN, or better still, get one of this fuel less generator for their parents or grand parents. This generator is easy to operate and cheap to maintain.

An average Nigerian doing one business or the other can get one this generator, even if it the small tiger one and he or she can be sure of constant and stable light throughout the day and night.

Bar owners will have no cause to frawn their faces on the high cost of petrol and the constant disappointment from PHCN, because with a medium or big fuel less generator, he/she will have a noiseless and smokeless generator and constant supply of electricity to boost his business.

Finally, the posed danger of a fuel generator as smoke (as air pollution) can cause lung disease, then Noise, which irritate both the owner and their neighbors and finally the High Price of fuel can all be avoided if one get one of these fuel less generator.


Chapter Two


Literature Review

2.1 Sources of Power

2.1.1. Hydro power

Hydro power is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the Earth’s water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the Earth’s surface, forms cloud, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean.

The movement of water as it flows downstream creates kinetic energy that can be converted into electricity. A hydroelectric power plant converts this energy into electricity by forcing water, often held at a dam, through a hydraulic turbine that is connected to a generator. The water exits the turbine and is returned to a stream or river below the Dam.

Hydro power is mostly dependent upon precipitation and elevation changes; high precipitation levels and large elevation changes are necessary to generate significant quantities of electricity.

2.1.2. Solar Energy

Solar panel electricity systems, also known as solar photovoltaic (PV), capture the sun’s energy using photovoltaic cells. These cells don’t need direct sun light to work. They can still generate some electricity on a cloudy day. The cells convert the sun light into electricity, which can be used to run house hold appliance and lighting.

2.1.3. Electricity Generators

An electric generator is a device used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The generator is based on the principle of ‘electromagnetic induction’ discovered in 1831 by Michael Faraday, a British Scientist. Faraday discovered that if an electric conductor, like a copper wire is moved through a magnetic field, electric current will flow (be induced) in the conductor. So, the mechanical energy of the moving wire is converted into the electric energy of the current that flows in the wire.

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