Design And Implementation Of A Soil Moisture Detector With Automatic SMS Notification System
The Internet of Things (IoT) is converting the agriculture industry and solving the immense problems or the major challenges faced by the farmers todays in the field. Nigeria is one of the 13th countries in the world having scarcity of water resources. Due to ever increasing of world population, we are facing difficulties in the shortage of water resources, limited availability of land, difficult to manage the costs while meeting the demands of increasing consumption needs of a global population that is expected to grow by 70% by the year 2050. The influence of population growth on agriculture leads to a miserable impact on the farmers livelihood. To overcome the problems, we design a low cost system for monitoring the agriculture farm which continuously measure the level of soil moisture of the plants and alert the farmers if the moisture content of particular plants is low via SMS or an email. This system uses an esp8266 microcontroller and a moisture sensor using Losant platform. Losant is a simple and most powerful IoT cloud platform for the development of coming generation. It offers the real time data visualization of sensors data which can be operate from any part of the world irrespective of the position of field
1.1 Background of the Study
Food production takes up almost half of the planets land surface. About 40% of the earths land is now given over to agriculture, and it consumes 85% of available fresh water. Due to globalization and population growth this figure of water conservation has been increasing every year. So it became a major challenge to every nation for reducing the farm water consumption. For better irrigation system, it is very crucial to measure the soil moisture for agriculture application, so that it will help farmers to manage their farm land more effectively.
IOT is the technology that enhance the Internet connectivity from digital devices to physical objects and establishes communication between them. The data collected are stored and managed at the cloud as well as shared between person to person, machine to machine, or person to machine. The invent of IoT would discover the new ways that put full potential of agriculture yield and mitigate the challenges that hinders the growth of crops. With the IOT, the monitoring of weather forecast, soil temperature and humidity, soil moisture level, remote water valves, pest control could be connected and information gathered from the sensors is exchanged to the farmers via mobile phones. Soil moisture is an important component on a small agriculture scale as well as large agriculture scale
modeling. Vegetation and crops mainly depends on the root level of moisture present in the soil. Knowledge of degree of soil wetness helps farmers to understand the condition of field and accordingly they react on it. Soil moisture determines the measure of soil water content which defines its expression in terms of mass or volume of water content of the soil. On the basis of mass, soil water content is expressed in the gravimetric soil moisture content θg is given by:
θg = Mwater/Msoil, (1)
where Mwater is the mass of the water in the soil, and Msoil is the mass of the dry soil present in the field. The volumetric soil moisture content of a soil θv,is defined by:
θv = V water/V sample (2)
where Vwater is the volume of water content in the soil and Vsample is the total volume of dry soil +water+ air present inthe sample of field. Both the values θg and θv are usually expressed in percent. The relationship between the gravimetric soil moisture content and volumetric soil moisture content is:
θv = θg(ρb/ρw) (3)
where ρb is the dry soil bulk density and ρw is the soil water density.
Over irrigation of the plants may perish the plants roots of oxygen and causes them to putrefy and it leads to soil fungal diseases. Research has been done that about 80% of the crop is destroyed due to over irrigation, which reduces the growth of crops yield. On the other hand, sometimes due to scarcity of water, field become dry and the plants will not receive enough nutrients for the growth of crops. To satisfy the increasing demand for determining the soil moisture status, IOT and use cases play a vital role in the field of agriculture industry. One of use case we implemented and tested by deploying moisture sensor in the sample of pot. The sensor data feeds to the Losant cloud platform interface to help the intended persons make timely decisions. Data is available instantly in the App to view the moisture level anytime or anywhere in the world.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study were to quantify irrigation water use and to evaluate turf quality differences between:
- A time-based irrigation system with a soil moisture sensor system,
- A time-based irrigation system with a rain sensor, and
- A time-based irrigation system with rain sensor as well as distributed educational materials. All of these experimental treatments consisted of technology or irrigation scheduling intervention and were compared to homes with minimal intervention during the project
- An SMS notification system to convey the level of water to the farmer
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Many of the irrigation systems operated worldwide are used on farms or lands that are located on the outskirts of towns and difficult to monitor. The manual operation of these systems over time has resulted in many problems. Chief among them is the possible event of either under-watering or oversupply of water. The consequence of under-watering is reduced crop yield. Similarly, overwatering results in withering of crops in some instances, as not all plant species tolerate excessive water. Over-irrigation further results in leaching of soil nutrients. The manual approach to practicing irrigation is both cost and resource-inefficient. To address these challenges and proffer long lasting solutions for dealing with the perennial over-watering or under-watering of farm crops at remote areas we propose the design of an efficient and cost effective microcontroller-based irrigation control system for enhancing food security.
1.4 Scope of the Study
The project focused solely in constructing a water irrigation system with a device that will determine the moisture condition of the soil and will trigger the water irrigation system to operate and send a notification via SMS to the farmer. The drip hose will automatically release adequate amount of water if the moisture sensor detects that the soil is already dry and lacks water.
The project can automatically determine if the soil-moisture is below the minimum allowable limit, ensures plants are not affected by moisture stress at critical growing times, decreases human intervention, will be using a microcontroller to control the right amount of water to release based on the moisture content of the soil, uses a solar panel as the power source of the system, can simply determine the water level condition of the water tank by water level indicator.
1.5 Limitation of the Study
The project is limited to be used for small area garden design, focuses primarily on soil moisture content as the basis for the irrigation system, no other sensor will be implemented, maintenance of the system still requires human intervention to keep irrigation on course, sensitive to weather condition which may interrupt the effectiveness of the soil moisture sensor, manual refill of the water tank to store and establish adequate amount of water enough for irrigation also study will not cover
about Fluid Mechanics.
1.6 Justification of the Study
The Nigeria climate consists of dry and warm weather in spring and fall, coupled with frequent rain events in summer months (NOAA 2003). With these environmental conditions occurring in areas of mostly sandy soil, which has a low water holding capacity, irrigation is often used to supplement rainfall to maintain high quality landscapes.
Therefore, automatic in-ground irrigation is common in Nigeria. Further, the majority of new homes are sold with automatic in-ground irrigation systems already in place(TBW 2005; Whitcomb 2005). Homes with automatic irrigation systems have been reported to have higher water use compared to manual irrigation or hose-end sprinklers (Mayer et al. 1999). According to Phase I results of this project, soil moisture sensor system controlled irrigation represents a technology that could lead to substantial savings in irrigation water use while maintaining acceptable turf quality, even during dry weather conditions (Dukes et al. 2008). The project described here (Phase II) expands the testing of this technology with existing residential irrigation systems as agreed upon between the District and the University, validating the plot study results of Phase I
1.7 Definition of Terms
Is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications and vehicles with minimal human interference
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall.
May refer to: The operation of a pump, for moving a liquid from one location to another
iv. Soil Moisture:
The water is held within the soil pores
Conclusion and Recommendation
The development of our project which is the Automatic Soil Moisture Sensing Water Irrigation System with water level indicator is the device that will provide the needed water when the soil moisture sensor detects if the soil is dry. LPU-Laguna Journal of Engineering and Computer Studies.
The development of program is obtained to operate the automatic irrigation system, given the scheduling process that is provided by the RTC, the amount of suitable water(based on range of its soil moisture) needed to deliver for the plants is being controlled so there is no excess water, which mainly contributes to conservation of water.
Based on the gathered results and obtained data, the following recommendations were drawn: The researchers recommend that this research may be used as reference for further development of new methods and devices for watering and protection system of the plantation, such as: adding a CCTV camera to monitor the daily watering of plants and animal disturbances, adding a light post within the vicinity or corners of the plantation area, adding and mixing of fertilizer to water which may flow in every plot that can help the plants grow faster and lastly , it can expanding the system and study the implementation of the system in a large scale plantation.
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