Design And Implementation Of An Online Examination And Administration System Using Biometrics

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Examination can be defined as an instrument for testing assessment, evaluation and accreditation (Ike, 1996). It is a potent instrument for judging knowledge and competence. Examination is an important aspect of the education process. This is the stage at which the learner’s knowledge, skills, ability and competencies are assessed, and judgments made about such performance. The outcome of such judgments is used for diagnosing as well as placement of students. Beating the due process of examinations leads to malpractices. Hence, examination malpractice is as old as examination itself. However, the rate at which examination malpractices occur in the Nigerian educational system is highly disturbing and, therefore, needs prompt attention by all stakeholders. In fact, the phenomenon has both moral and legal implications.

Genuine verification of the candidate’s identity as a major requirement for participation in an exam is the primary objective of this research work. This explains why we the researchers have decided to carry out research on this topic and finally develop a viable and dependable system known as “Design and Implementation of an Online Entrance Examination Administration System”. In the proposed system, we are going to apply the concept of biometric authentication to detect any form of examination malpractice during examination. Traditional authentication systems cannot discriminate between an impersonator who fraudulently obtains the access privileges (e.g., key, password) of a genuine user. Furthermore, biometric authentication systems can be more convenient for the users since there is no password to be forgotten or key to be lost and a single biometric trait (e.g., fingerprint) can be used to access several accounts without the burden of remembering passwords.

These research work is sub divided into five chapters as follows: chapter one which contains the introduction of the work Chapter two contains the literature review of existing systems, their successes and limitations shall also be discussed in this chapter. Chapter three contains the analyses and design of the proposed system including the methodologies adopted while carrying out the research. Chapter four is where the actual implementation using the appropriate programming language and finally chapter five contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


1.1 Background of the Study

Education is the bedrock on which all human activities revolve. Examination malpractice which started unnoticed in Nigeria has become a national phenomenon and a threat to the educational system (Denison, 2007). There have been daily newspapers with screaming headlines on students’ examination malpractices involving examination officials and students poor performance in academic activities. The Federal Government, Examination bodies and Researchers have proffer solutions toward curbing the vices that is plaguing our educational systems in the society. But laws and suggestions made were neither implemented nor enforced due to “Nigerian Factor” (Macson, 2008). To this effect, examination malpractices have consistently remained a bane of Nigerian educational system.

Several steps have been taken to check this crime unabated. Some of the methods adopted are: the use of Identity card; the presence of invigilators to identify fake students; the allocation of sitting arrangement number that determines the hall where the student will write exam and the need to sign in and out on the attendance sheets (Williams, 2009). This research work proffers solution to the problems faced by the examination management system using the concept of biometric identification techniques (finger print regulation).

Genuine verification of the candidate’s identity as a major requirement for participation in an exam is the primary objective of this research work. This explain why biometric fits into the overall objective of this work.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The persistent occurrence of examination malpractices has been a major concern to educationists (Aghenta,2000; Ige, 2002). Despite the high premium placed on examinations by the National Policy on Education (FGN,2004), it seems that examination malpractices have not been properly addressed in Nigeria.

Common observations have shown that there is mass cheating in entrance examinations in the Nigeria. Nothing concrete has been done to reduce the problem except the cancellation of results for a particular center or the withholding of results in certain subjects. The problem of the study is that of finding a lasting solution to the issue of examinations malpractices during entrance examinations in Nigeria. This explains why biometric authentication fits into this study as means of identifying the rightful candidate that is suppose to sit for an exam.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to design and develop an online entrance examination administration system with the objectives:

  1. To design a novel system that can screen candidate with their biometric data.
  2. To create awareness to both lecturers, staffs of the school administration and the government at large on the different types of examination malpractices and how to combat them.
  3. To efficiently manage and administer entrance examination process in Nigeria.
  4. To eradicate all forms of malpractices in Nigerian entrance examination.
  5. To design a new algorithm that will integrate student data with their biometric information.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study is important in the following ways:

  1. It will enable administrators of schools and colleges to properly manage their entrance examination process.
  2. The study enables the school administrators to understand the different forms of examination malpractices during the process of examination and how to prevent it.
  3. The implementation of the proposed system helps save time and burden of the traditional authentication using id cards, password and username
  4. This study serves as a good reference to further researching student who may want to carry out research on the same or related topic.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The scope of this research work is to design and implement an online entrance examination administration system such as aptitude test making use of unified biometric identification process for prospective student and staff in the institution taking a case study of Rivers State Polytechnic Bori. Exam questions will be posted to the site by the lecturers, and only legible students will log onto the site after proper authentication and screening process, see the questions, answer them appropriately and click on summit. The system will assess the student’s performance and score him/her in accordance to their performance.


1.6 Limitations of the Study

The limitations of this study are as follows:

i. Time constraint:

Time is a commodity man will always long for it, due to the limitation of time, some few features which would have been added to the project were eliminated.

ii. Inconsistent Power Supply:

The power sector of the economy has over time diminished its provision of adequate service and hence, I had to limit myself to working on the project when electricity was available and when the computer hard battery power. And this reduced the already limited time available for the project work.

iii. Internet Access:

The internet service in Nigeria can be quit erratic especially during the rainy season, and as such we had to visit the cyber café a number of times to have adequate access to the internet.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Examination:

Examination can be defined as an instrument for testing assessment, evaluation and accreditation.

TVAAS:

This is an acronym for Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System, it provides information to teachers, parents and the public on how schools are doing in helping each child make academic gains each year.. It provides information to school administrators to identify weaknesses in even the strongest schools. And it provides information to central administrators, school boards and policy leaders to ask harder, more penetrating questions.

Testing:

Testing can be defined as a procedure for critical evaluation; a means of determining the presence, quality, or truth of something

Assessment:

A process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation

Automation:

The use of computers and machine instead of people to do a job

Manual:

Something operated or done by hand without the help of computers

Graphical:

Relating to or containing graphic, especially on a computer

Biometrics

This is referring to detailed information about someone’s body, such as the patterns of colour in their eyes, which can be used to prove who they are.

Authenticate:

To prove that something is real, true, or what people say it is

Fingerprint:

The pattern of curved lines on the end of a finger or thumb, which is different in every person, or a mark left by this pattern.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

Entrance examination malpractices have consistently remained a bane of Nigerian educational system. A common form of examination malpractices is the deliberate impersonation of the applicant. Part of the requirement of a credible examination is that the real applicants wrote the exams. Several steps have been taken to check this crime unabated. Some of the methods adopted are: the use of Identity card; the presence of invigilators to identify fake students; the allocation of sitting arrangement number that determines the hall where the student will write exam and the need to sign in and out on the attendance sheets. This research work proffers solution to the problem of student impersonation during exams. A biometric model is designed to identify every applicant at the point of entry into the examination hall. A biometric verification exercise is also conducted while the examination is going on and at the point of submission of examination papers. The students’ attendance is captured automatically as their identity is verified on the biometric systems. The Biometric Access Control Techniques is explained. A model describing its application to examination screening and attendance monitoring is designed using denotational mathematics.


5.2 Conclusion

In this project work, we designed a Biometric Model for Entrance examination administration system. Biometric Access is a better substitute for the use of Identity card in verifying users identity. Experience has shown the porosity of Identity cards in uniquely identifying individual in the face of sophisticated forgery technology. The naturalness in the use of fingerprint makes it a reliable access control technique. The fact that a user no longer needs to carry identity cards and other documents for identification explain the ease of use. Future work may see to the implementation of the proposed model in Examination Halls.

Apart from the fact that it takes us to another level in human machine interface, it is economical and easy to use, it should be adopted by Educational institutions in Nigeria.


5.3 Recommendation

The Biometric attendance and monitoring system as good as it is, in improving security, has some challenges which require further work. The first of these challenges is spoofing i.e. the use of forged biometric object (e.g. Plastic finger) in accessing a secured system. An example of such is described in an article published by a group from Yokohama National University in Japan. In this article Matsumoto and colleagues developed a method to spoof fingerprint devices by making a mold from plastic, originating from both a live finger and a latent fingerprint.

Artificial fingers were then created from the casts using gelatin, commonly used for confectionary, where the resultant casts were termed “gummy fingers”. The resultant artificial finger works perfectly like the original natural finger in identifying the user. This development poses a serious challenge to the future of biometrics. However, a ready-made solution to this problem is liveness detection. The goal of liveness testing is to determine if the biometric being captured is an actual measurement from the authorized, live person who is present at the time of capture.

Another challenge is the security of the biometric template. Once this is compromised the user loses his identity for life. A compromised PIN can be changed to remove security threat but this is not the same for biometric template because of its permanence.

The recommendation is that more works need to be done in evolving a more robust liveness detection algorithm that eliminate the danger of spoofing and guarantee a true identification of the user during entrance examinations in Nigerian educational system.


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