Design And Implementation Of Gas Detection System Using GSM Network

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Design And Implementation Of Gas Detection System Using GSM Network


Abstract


This project presents the design and implementation of gas detection system using GSM network. Gas leakage is a major problem with industrial sector, residential premises and gas powered vehicles like CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) buses, cars, etc. One of the preventive methods to stop accidents associated with the gas leakage is to install a gas leakage detection device at vulnerable places.

The aim of this project is to develop such a device that can automatically detect gas leakages in vulnerable areas and as well alert the owner anywhere in the world via GSM network. The system detects the leakage of the LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) using MQ6 gas sensor and uses the GSM phone to alert the person about the gas leakage via Call. When the LPG concentration in the air exceeds a certain level, the gas sensor senses the gas leakage and the output of the sensor goes LOW. This is detected by the microcontroller, and the system then alerts the customer by calling a specified mobile-phone number.

Keywords: GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), Gas Sensor MQ-5, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), LED (Light Emitting Diode).


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study.

This project presents the design and implementation of gas detection system using GSM network. The gas detection system using GSM network is a newly designed gas detector device using MQ-6 gas sensor and microcontroller. It is a sophisticated gas detection method different from the existing system due to its unique features. The use of gas detector started with a gas detector system from Mr. Naoyoshi Taguchi which can measure the concentration of a target gas by oxidizing or reducing the target gas at an electrode and measuring the resulting current. Beginning his research in 1962, Mr. Naoyoshi Taguchi became the first person in the world to succeed in the development of a semiconductor device which could detect low concentrations of combustible and reducing gases when used with a simple electrical circuit. This gas detector device based on this technology are often called “TGS” (Taguchi Gas Sensors).

The sensors contain two or three electrodes, occasionally four, in contact with an electrolyte. The electrodes are typically fabricated by fixing a high surface area precious metal on to the porous hydrophobic membrane. The working electrode contacts both the electrolyte and the ambient air to be monitored usually via a porous membrane. The electrolyte most commonly used is a mineral acid, but organic electrolytes are also used for some sensors. The electrodes and housing are usually in a plastic housing which contains a gas entry hole for the gas and electrical contacts. The gas diffuses into the sensor, through the back of the porous membrane to the working electrode where it is oxidized or reduced.

This electrochemical reaction results in an electric current that passes through the external circuit. In addition to measuring, amplifying and performing other signal processing functions, the external circuit maintains the voltage across the sensor between the working and counter electrodes for a two electrode sensor or between the working and reference electrodes for a three electrode cell. At the counter electrode an equal and opposite reaction occurs, such that if the working electrode is an oxidation, then the counter electrode is a reduction.

Fig 1.1: An Automatic Gas Detector (available in the complete material)

In this project, a gas detection system is designed and implemented using GSM network so that information or a call as alert will be sent to an authorized person’s GSM mobile cell phone to inform him or her about the gas leakage.There are mainly three units in this system: the sensor unit, microcontroller unit and GSM modem. For detecting dangerous and flammable gas leaks in any closed environment such as a car, house, service station or storage tank, a gas sensor is used which detects natural gas, LPG and coal gas. The sensor is shown below:

Fig 1.1: MQ-6 Gas Sensor (available in the complete material)

This MQ-6 gas sensor can also be used to sense other gases like iso-butane, propane and even cigarette smoke. This unit can easily be incorporated into an alarm unit to sound an alarm.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Gas leakages are a common problem in households and industries. If not detected and corrected at the right time, it can be lead to lost of lives and properties. Gas leakage can be life threatening. People who are working in hazardous atmospheres are in danger of open flame which causes fire outbreak. Fatalities and injuries are risk of their job. Potentially deadly carbon monoxide is also very dangerous to life.

A leakage of natural gas can be dangerous because it increases the risk of fire or explosion. Local gas companies `work hard to provide adequate warning in the event of a gas leak. Because methane—and therefore, natural gas—does not have any odour, the gas company adds a warning “rotten-egg” smell (mercaptan or a similar sulfur-based compound) that can be easily detected by most people. However, people who have a diminished sense of smell may not be able to rely upon this safety mechanism. Also the leak might occur at a time when no one is in the vicinity which increases the risk of an explosion.


1.3 Aims and Objective

The aim and objectives of this project is to design and implementation of gas detection system using GSM network.

Other objectives of the project are as follows:

  1. To build a potable and lower cost gas detector to improve the feasibility of smart detection networks for health and safety.
  2. Unlike a traditional gas leakage alarm system which only senses a leakage and sounds an alarm, the idea and objective of our solution is to call the user via GSM when even gas leakage occurs.
  3. The user can pick the gas detector alert call to hear the conversation in the location.

1.4 Scope of Work

The gas detection system uses GSM network and detects LPG from concentration of 200 parts per million to 10,000 parts per million in an area using microcontroller and MQ6 sensor.

The gas detector is a battery operated device considered for detection of various gases within an area usually as part of a safety system/risk control.


1.5 Significance of the Project

This project can be used to detect gas leakages at home, in a car, storage tank environment or in a service station. It can be easily implemented to industrial level by upgrading its ranges. The implementation of this project is important in every home, office and industries because there are many gases that can be harmful to organic life, such as humans or animals. This project helps people to upgrade their safety standards, comply statutory even though it has small sensitivity to detect alcohol, it can be used as liquor tester.

The project has excellent sensitivity combined with a quick response time. It’s most important and basic function is to prevent accidents and protect life and property from disaster. It provides along lasting safety means for detecting the leakage of gas into the area of an appliance when the appliance is in a shutdown condition or not in operation. It provide a novel gas detection and monitoring system which is economical to manufacture and which may be readily installed in conventional trailers, boats or the like which are normally dependent upon a stored supply of pressurized gas.


1.6 Overview of the Write-Up

This project report is written in such a way that each chapter is related to the next as shown in the block diagram below.

The organization of the project report is well detailed and vast in its coverage. It covers all the activities encountered during the research and construction work.

Fig 1.3: Report organization block diagram

The first chapter is the introductory chapter, which covers the background of the project, aims and objectives, scope of the project, constraints and block diagram overview of the states. Chapter two presents the literature reviews. Chapter three covers the system analysis and design in details including the design methodology. Chapter four presents the system implementation which entails the component layout, the wiring schedule, the wiring diagram and also the complete schematic diagram. Chapter five covers the testing and integration of the project design. The system testing was first carried out accordingly in a laboratory setting. Chapter six is the summary and conclusion which includes the summary of achievements, problems encountered during project design, recommendation and suggestion for further improvement.


Chapter Six


Summary and Conclusion

6.1 Summary

This section of this project report forms the concluding part of the write up and takes a look at some of the problems encountered during the progressive job on the system and also brings in suggestions for further improvement and/or enhancement for the system design.

The design and development of this project has really been challenging, as I have been faced with choices far beyond what I expected. But in the long run the result paid off. After the complete design of the system, the deviation between the expected result and the actual result was very close. The performance and efficiency was beyond expectation and from every ramification, the design of the project was a success.


6.2 Conclusion

This project has been designed, constructed and tested. The result obtained from the tests carried out shows that the system is capable of calling the user as an alert whenever there is gas concentration at the inputs of the gas sensors. Hence this system can be used in homes and public buildings such as hotels and restaurants.


6.3 Suggestion for Further Development

Further modifications can be implemented on the system. One of such modifications is to provide the system with a dual power supply i.e. include a battery power supply source in addition to the utility power supply.

Also a battery charging and monitoring unit can be incorporated to charge the phone’s battery can be used in homes and public buildings such as hotels and restaurants. Further modifications can be implemented on the system. One of such modifications is to provide the system with a dual power supply i.e. include a battery power supply source in addition to the utility power supply. Also a battery charging and monitoring unit can be incorporated to charge the phone’s battery.


6.4 Problems Encountered and Solution

During the course of the design of this system, there were series of problems, most of which were over come via share troubleshooting, in some cases some parts require redesigning and the software debugging also created a bit of a problem.

One major setback of this project is the availability of components required to build the hardware of the system. In most cases I had to look through electrical catalogs to obtain replacements of some of the components which are not available in the market. After developing the software for the microcontroller, it was very difficult to find a firm/individual to help program the chip (burning the embedded software on to the chip). This posed serious problem as it brought about delay in the design time and it was also costly, this also affected the overall cost of the system.

The final packaging of the design was also another trouble, as this actually caused problems on the circuit board. Such problems include partial contact within the circuit board, between components and also with the wiring. This was actually one of the most challenging aspects of the circuit implementation phase. Due to this fact, there was a lot of soldering and de-soldering to ensure that the circuit was well implemented and seated.


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