Design And Implementation Of Electronic Voters Registration System

Computer Science Project Material with Source Code Included

Computer Science Project Material with Source Code Included


Abstract


The electoral system is Nigeria have had poor record in electoral process, this have been attributed to the poor registration of voters. The electoral bodies in the past were based on manual registration process, which gave room for electoral fraud mostly in the state level. Also, the state electoral bodies in Nigeria operates under a federal voters register, so the need to develop “a single, uniform, official, centralized, interactive computerized state voter registration list defined, maintained and administered at the state level is required”. This system must be electronically based and implemented and also a sustainable database for storing voters information. This research work is based on designing and implementing an electronical voting registration system that will aid capturing accurate voter’s information, and store this information on a database.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • List Of Figures
  • List Of Tables
  • Table Of Content
  • Abstract

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Aims And Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Scope Of The Study
  • 1.5 Limitations Of The Study
  • 1.6 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.7 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Voters Registration
  • 2.2 Review Of Context For Voter Registration In United States
  • 2.3 Voters Identification Card
  • 2.4 Independent National Electoral Commission Degree No. 17 Of 1998
  • 2.5 Direct-Recording Electronic Voting System
  • 2.6 Electronic Voter Registration
  • 2.7 Electronic Voter Registration In Nigeria, The Present And The Future

Chapter Three

Methodology And System Analysis

  • 3.1 Research Methodology
  • 3.2 Fact Finding Method/Methodology
  • 3.2.1 Interview Method
  • 3.2.2 Reference To Written Text
  • 3.3 Description Of Research Instrument
  • 3.4 Merits Of The Research Instrument
  • 3.5 Present Procedures
  • 3.6 Input, Process And Output Analysis
  • 3.6.1 Input Analysis
  • 3.6.2 Process Analysis
  • 3.6.3 Output Analysis
  • 3.7 Description And Analysis Of The Existing System
  • 3.8 Problems Of The Current System
  • 3.9 Justification For The New System
  • 3.10 Information Flow Diagram
  • 3.11 Organisation Structure

Chapter Four

System Design And Implementation

  • 4.1 Overview Of The System Design
  • 4.2 Specifications Of The New System
  • 4.3 Input Specification
  • 4.4 Output Specification
  • 4.5 Database Specification
  • 4.6 Main Menu Design
  • 4.7 Subsystem Design
  • 4.7.1 Login Subsystem
  • 4.7.2 Registration Subsystem Design
  • 4.7.3 Report Subsystem Design
  • 4.8 System Flow Chart
  • 4.9 Top-Down System
  • 4.10 Program Modules Specification
  • 4.11 Choice Of Programming Language
  • 4.12 Program Flow Chart

Chapter Five

Summary, Recommendation And Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • 5.3 Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendix I Program Welcome Page
  • Appendix Ii Program Home Page
  • Appendix Iii Administrator Login Page
  • Appendix Iv Voters Registration Page
  • Appendix V Program Output Page
  • Appendix Vi Output Of Voters Registration Card.
  • Appendix Vii Program Source Codes

List Of Figures


  1. Voter’s Card
  2. An ISG Top Voter Machine
  3. A Diebold Acc Vote-TS Machine
  4. Premier Electronic Voting Machine
  5. INEC DDC Machine
  6. Information Flow Diagram
  7. Organization Chart
  8. Main Program Design
  9. Login Subsystem Design
  10. Registration Subsystem Design
  11. Report Subsystem Design
  12. System Flow Chart
  13. Top-Down System Design
  14. Program Flow Chart

List Of Tables


  1. Voter’s Registration Form
  2. File Design Format

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

The independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) origin can be traced back to the period before independence when the Electoral commission of Nigeria was established to conduct the 1959 elections. The Federal Electoral Commission (FEC), established in 1960 conducted the immediate post-independence federal and regional elections of 1964 and 1965. The electoral body was dissolved after the military coup of 1966. In 1978, the federal electoral commission was constituted by the regime of General Olusegun Obasanjo, organizing the elections of 1979 which ushered in the Nigerian second Republic under the leadership of Alhaji Shehu Shagari. It also conducted the general elections of 1983.

In December 1995, the military Government elections of General Sani Abacha established the Electoral Commission of Nigeria (NECON) which conducted another set of elections. These elected institutions were not inaugurated before the sudden death of General Abacha on June 1998 aborted the process. The electoral commission of Nigeria (NECON) was in 1998 dissolved by the then Head of State General Abdulsalani Abukakar’s administration who then established the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). INEC organized the transitional elections in 1999 that ushered in the Nigerian fourth Republic

Establishment of state independent Electoral commissions (SIECs) was provided for by the 1999 constitution of the federal Republic of Nigeria, which states in section 197(1) “there shall be established for each state of the federation , the state independent Electoral Commission who composition and power are set out in part II of the third schedule to this constitution”. It is therefore in line with this constitutional provision that the Rivers State House in may 2000, established the Rivers State Independent Electoral Commission (RSIEC) and the commission have successfully conducted two states elections for Local Government Chairman and Councilors elections. On the 27th of November, 2007, the current board of commissioners where appointed by the Governor of Rivers State, Rt. Hon.

Chibuike Rotimi Amaechi. This present commissioners have Professor Nimi D. Briggs, OON as the chairman and chief electoral commissioner. The commission on the 11th January, 2008 presented their electoral guidelines alone side the code of conduct. According to the Law, section 5 (c) of the RSIEC Law No. 2 of 2001 as amended by RSIEC law No. 6 of 2007 outlined the functions of the commission as follows.

  1. To organize, undertake and supervise all elections to Local Government and Councils within the state
  2. To render some advice as it may consider necessary to the Independent National Electoral Commission on the compilation of the register of voters.
  3. To provide guidelines to political parties stipulating the rules and procedure for electioneering campaigns for Local Government election.
  4. To appoint, Train and Assign ad-hoc staff in staff in each polling unit to assist with the taking of the poll.
  5. To conduct and supervise all parties primaries and referenda within the state.
  6. To ensure that the dates, times and places of public election and referenda are fixed and that they are publicized and that elections are held accordingly within the state.
  7. To announce the result of all elections within the state.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

Lack of credible voters register has been widely criticized by Nigerians as the curse of electoral lapses in the electoral system. The voters register is been organized by the Independent National Electoral Commission which is the National body. The State Independent Electoral Commission must depend on INEC for their voters register. These denials the state independent electoral commission the opportunity to manage their voters registers. In most cases, states have to wait for INEC to provide the voters register before they can conduct state elections. This constitutes a big problem to conducting a free and fair election at state levels. The register of voters as provided by independent National Electoral Commission was deficient in several respects.

  1. Some units did not have the name of any voter on the register (the so-called zero units) and yet there were people in those units who had authentic voter’s card.
  2. Many persons who turned up with authentic voter’s cards did not have their names on the register of voters.
  3. Names of voters were swapped between units and wards that were unrelated.
  4. Missing photography’s and mismatch of photographs with the names on the register.

1.3 Aims And Objectives Of The Study.

The main aim and objective of this study is to design and implement an electronic voter’s registration system for credible elections within state levels. It is helpful to consider the two basic information management functions of this voter registration database (VRD), which is adding individuals to the list and maintaining the list.

The VRD is also the source of data for poll books (list of eligible voters in localities for use at polling units). The software developed will implement additional functionality to state voter registration systems that assists local election officials in conducting elections. Such functionality may include voter’s card verification.


1.4 Scope Of The Study

This research work is designed to enable Rivers State Independent Electoral Commission (RSIEC) to use electronic device in capturing voter’s information. The design will cover some security issues like capturing the picture of the electorates for validation during election.


1.5 Limitations Of The Study

This research work was limited to developing a database for storing state voters register. This will be independent of the national voters register and can only be used for state elections.

Due to time constraint, programme developed covers functionality like voter’s cards verification and adding individuals to the list.

Generally, study of this nature would have constraints such as time, money and data collection method. I wish to equally say and bring to notice that the structure interview used has the limitation of rigidity thereby restricting the information obtained. Also, the busy schedule of electoral officers (during the 2011 elections) who were interviewed would impact negatively on the character of the responses.

Also, the ongoing elections restricted me from getting vital information from INEC since I was denied access on many occasions.

Finally, restriction from the school authority when there was need for me ton goes out for some vital materials and information for the research was another major obstacle.


1.6 Significance Of The Study

This project work will help in a good number of ways in conducting credible elections within the state level. The state electronic voter’s registration system enables the state electoral body (RSIEC) to achieve the followings.

  1. Conduct free and fair election within the state
  2. Maintain a state voters register electronically
  3. Determine the voting strength of the state
  4. Eliminate disenfranchising electorates
  5. Security purpose.

1.7 Definition Of Terms

VRD:

Voter Registration Databases

INEC:

Independent National Electoral Commission

RSIEC:

Rivers State Independent Electoral Commission

Voter Registration:

This is the requirement in some democracies for citizens and residents to check in with some central registry specifically for the purpose of being allowed to vote in elections.

Voting System:

This is a method by which voters make a choice between option, often in an election or on a policy referendum.

E-voting:

This term encompasses several different types of voting embracing both electronic means of casting a voting and electronic means of casting votes.

Technology:

This is study of techniques or process of mobilizing resources (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefit man and his environment.

Database:

A systematically arranged collection of computer data structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.

Voters Card:

This is an identity card issued by electoral commission to registered voters which identifies and qualifies them to participate in electoral polls.

SSN:

SOCIAL Security Number

DMV:

Department of motor Vehicle

SSA:

Social Security Administration

AAMVA:

American Association of motor vehicle Administrators.

HAVA:

Help American Voting Act.


Chapter Five


Summary, Recommendation And Conclusion

5.1 Summary

Voter registration plays a central role in elections in Nigeria. Today, the states operate under a federal mandate to develop “a single, uniform, official, centralized, interactive computerized state wide voter registration list defined, maintained and administered at the state level. Each state’s database must contain the name and registration information of each legally registered voter in the state and each legally registered voter is required to be assigned a unique identifier. Election officials must perform regular maintenance regarding the accuracy of the registration lists. In addition, the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) of 1993 establishes rules under which names may be removed from voter registration lists. (A voter registration list is the list of names contained in a voter registration database, and the terms are often used interchangeably.) Hence two basic tasks must be performed for voter registration databases: adding individuals to the voter registration database (VRD) and maintaining the VRD.


5.2 Recommendation

The recommendation of the on state voter registration Databases are divided into two categories: actions that can be implemented in a relatively short time frame and actions that will need more time to implement. The researcher also notes that although this report focuses on voter registration databases, such databases are always part of a large system that includes human beings and institutions. Solutions to technical problems may in some cases also require changes to state elections law or regulation and/or to state or local practice and procedures, and should not be regarded as being exclusively about changing computer systems.

However, all experience with information technology suggests that the initial acquisition cost of information technology is a relatively small fraction of its life-cycle costs. Ongoing funding streams will be needed both to maintain VRD systems (and the data they hold) in good operating conduction over time and to implement many of the improvements described below.

The short-term recommendation address changes of a nontechnical nature related to (1) education and dissemination of information and (2) administrative processes and procedures. The long-term recommendations address the improvement of data collection and entry; matching procedures; privacy, security, backup and database interoperability.

All of these recommendations are directed primarily at election officials (voter registrars) at state and Local/country level, and legislatures and country commissions that make policy regarding the conduct of elections at the state and local level. In some cases, the Election Assistance Commission has a useful role to play as well in facilitating and promoting their implementation.


5.3 Conclusions

The nationwide adoption of state wide voter’s registration system, the states will be largely successful in deploying their initial VRD implementations as it is going to be funded by the state government. Nevertheless, there are a number of immediate opportunities for states to improve the operation of their VRD systems. In addition, if the promise of state wide VRDs for improving voter registration is to address some longer-term issues. These issues can be successfully addressed only with coordinated, concerted and sustained support for continuing improvement on the part of many parties, including state election officials, non election state and local agencies, state legislatures, voter advocacy groups, and the federal government.


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