Design And Implementation Of A Distributed Database System For National Electoral Commission To Check Double Registration And Voting During Election
Fundamental right to vote or simply voting in elections forms the basis of democracy. The conduct of periodic, competitive, participatory, credible and non-violent elections is one of the main yardsticks used to determine the democratic condition of a state. In Nigeria, elections have been conducted using the manual system of voting ever since we started practicing democracy in 1999, but these elections using the manual means have been marred with a lot of electoral malpractices and hitches. These includes violent attack on the voters, result manipulations, vote buying, remoteness of polling centers etc. These are enough reasons that necessitates the design and construction of an electronic voting system, that goes a long way in addressing most of these problems.
The e-voting system aims to check double registration and eliminate the bottlenecks evident in the manual voting system such as the lengthy registration process, unnecessary transportation, election violence and ultimately the incredibility of the votes.
This was achieved by developing a time effective registration platform which registers a voter and assigns a voter their voters card immediately. The voter also gets to vote from their nearest safe and convenient polling unit and their votes is counted where it belongs.
The results obtained from subsequent tests were very impressive in terms of time, security and accuracy as compared to the manual system.
Such system with all these capabilities will go a long in ameliorating the aforementioned problems of the existing manual system of voting in the Nigerian electoral process.
Table Of Contents
- Table of Content
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Abbreviations
- 1.1 Background of Study
- 1.1.1 E-voting System Overview
- 1.2 Problem Statement
- 1.3 Aim and Objectives
- 1.3.1 Aim
- 1.3.2 Objectives
- 1.4 Significance of Project
- 1.4.1 To the University
- 1.4.2 To the Society
- 1.5 Scope and Limitations of project
- 1.6 Project Outline
- 2.1 Theories of the Technologies Involved
- 2.1.1 Overview of Two-factor Authentication
- 18.104.22.168 Authentication Factors
- 2.1.2 Smart Card Technologies
- 22.214.171.124 The Smart Card Chip
- 126.96.36.199.1 Description of Smart Card Pin-out
- 188.8.131.52 Advantages of Smart Cards
- 184.108.40.206 Disadvantages of Smart Cards
- 220.127.116.11 Types of Smart Cards
- 18.104.22.168 The Smart Card Reader
- 2.1.3 Fingerprint Authentication System
- 22.214.171.124 Fingerprint Scanner
- 126.96.36.199 Parts of a Fingerprint Scanner
- 188.8.131.52 Components of a Fingerprint System
- 184.108.40.206 Mode of Operation of a Fingerprint System
- 220.127.116.11 Applications of Fingerprint Biometric Technologies
- 18.104.22.168 Advantages of Fingerprints Technologies
- 22.214.171.124 Disadvantages of Fingerprints Technologies
- 2.1.4 Database Technologies
- 126.96.36.199 Components of the Database Environment
- 188.8.131.52 Database Management System
- 184.108.40.206 Advantages of Database
- 220.127.116.11 Disadvantages of Database
- 18.104.22.168 Types of Database
- 22.214.171.124 Mongo DBDBMS
- 2.2 Review of Related Literatures
- 2.2.1 Review of Related Works
- 2.3 Summary of the Reviewed Literature
- 2.4 Literature Gaps
Methodology and System Design
- 3.1 Methodology
- 3.1.1 Research purpose
- 3.1.2 Research approach
- 3.1.3 Research conclusion
- 3.1.4 Waterfall Development Method
- 3.1.5 Steps for Waterfall Model
- 3.2 Requirements Analysis and Specification
- 3.3 System Design
- 3.3.1 Software Design
- 126.96.36.199 Administrator Dashboard
- 188.8.131.52 Registration Platform
- 184.108.40.206 Voting Interface
- 220.127.116.11 Result Interface
- 18.104.22.168 Server
- 22.214.171.124 Database
- 3.3.2 Hardware Design
- 126.96.36.199 Power Source
- 188.8.131.52 Control Unit
- 184.108.40.206 Touch Screen
- 220.127.116.11 Fingerprint Scanner
- 18.104.22.168 Smart Card Reader
System Implementation and Result Analysis
- 4.1 System Implementation and Unit Testing
- 4.1.1 Software Implementation and Unit Testing
- 22.214.171.124 Administrator Dashboard
- 126.96.36.199 Voting Interface
- 188.8.131.52 Result Interface
- 184.108.40.206 Registration Interface
- 220.127.116.11 Server
- 18.104.22.168 Database
- 4.1.2 Hardware Implementation and Unit Testing
- 22.214.171.124 Power Unit
- 126.96.36.199 LCD Touch Screen
- 188.8.131.52 Control Unit
- 184.108.40.206 Smart Card Reader
- 220.127.116.11 Fingerprint Scanner
- 4.2 System Integration and Testing
- 4.3 Packaging
- 4.4 Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME)
Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
1.1 Background Of Study
In every democratic setting with persons of differing and inconsistent opinions, decisions must be made between several options. This happens in business environment, educational environment, social organizations, and mostly in governance. One of the ways of making such a decision is through voting. Voting is a formal process of expressing individual opinions for or against some motion. In the governance sector of many organisation this process is always used as a means of selecting or electing a leader. One of the key areas where voting is applied is in election. Election is the formal process of selecting a person for public office or of accepting or rejecting a political proposition by voting.
1.1.1 E-Voting Database Overview
E-voting (Electronic Voting) as a term encompasses a broad range of voting systems that apply electronic elements in one or more steps of the electoral cycle . There are many levels to e-voting in a broad sense which could be e-collation, e-verification, internet voting, remote online voting e.t.c. Following the definition of a system as anything that takes an input and gives an output, an e-voting system is any system that can offers both electronic and online voting. It could also incorporate e- registration, e-verification, e-collation, remote online voting and real-time result display. An E-voting system (EVS) generally comprises the following for it to work efficiently:
- An interactive voting user interface on an electronic device which provides a friendly environment for voters to authenticate and cast their votes, it also serves as a means of collection the individual votes and storing them in the local and central database.
- An administrative dashboard for voters registration, details update and elections coordination
- A database management system for the storage of election, voting and voters data.
- A result display interface.
E-voting system serves to reduce the cumulative costs of running elections and increase voters participation in election system as it offers voters an easy and convenient way to vote and most importantly, it is a panacea to the issue of long distances covered by voters to a specific destination for their votes to be counted, and also it combat the issues of ballot box snatching which is rampart in the conventional election process in Nigeria.
A great technological improvement is observed in election process mostly in the areas of result collation and transmission. Though the Independent National Electoral Commission INEC has not fully implemented the use of technologies for collation due to lack of legal framework . But, most elections around the world use ICT in elections to some degree, at least to summarize and aggregate the votes. This electronic adaptation is the result of a long period of evolution during which not only the procedures but also the technological means for casting votes changed considerably.
1.2 Problem Statement
The present voting system applicable in the Nigerian electoral system has proved inefficient as the voters’ registration process is slow, the manual collation of results takes time and gives room for result manipulation, also the inaccessible nature of election venues which includes the long distances to be covered by voters’ to their registered location increases voters’ apathy towards the election processes, and finally the issues of ballot box snatching and damage and other election violence and issues associated with the traditional ballot paper voting all defiles the purpose of voting in election process as a formal process of expressing individual opinions for or against some motion.
1.3 Aim And Objectives
In the quest to design a successful system to tackle the issues stated in the problem statement, the aim and objectives of the project are outlined below.
The aim of this project is to design and implement a distributed database system for national electoral commission to check double registration and voting during election.
Project Objectives includes
- A detailed study of the election processes as it pertains to voting.
- Design and develop a software platform for voter registration, election voting, real-time election results collation and monitoring and mostly for voters’ remote access to elections.
- Design and develop an electronic device that incorporates smart card reader and fingerprints technology for voter’s accreditation, authentication and verification.
- Design and develop an administration dashboard for the election administrators.
- Run simulations and compare the results of the designed e-voting system and other voting systems.
1.4 Significance Of The Project
In view of the rapid development of computer technology in virtually all fields of operation and its use in relation to information management, the projects’ benefits are itemized as follows:
An e-voting database is beneficial to the university as:
- It will provide a means conduct a less stressful and fair elections at different levels (faculty, departments, school wide e.t.c) in the university.
- It will offer an in-depth knowledge of the practical approach to ICT education.
- It will serve as a hands-on application of theories taught in class as it relates to database, software and hardware development.
- As its’ database is based on a flexible database management system, student and staff details can easily be collected for easy access and monitoring.
- Its’ smart card system can also be applied to other fields (e.g. networking) for easy access of each individuals’ data.
- It will serve as a base for other works in the field of ICT in governance.
The significance of an e-voting system to the society and mostly to Nigeria are itemized as follows:
- It will provide INEC (Independent National Electoral Commission) with a means to conduct less costly and fair elections.
- The secure and flexible database management system safeguards data and information to account for credible elections.
- It will serve to reduce the workload in the process of conducting election.
- As it incorporates remote voting individuals can vote from their convenience.
- It will enable INEC reduce the time wasted in collating and announcing election result.
- It will greatly reduce and eliminate disenfranchising electorates.
- It will serve to eliminate invalid votes, curb election violence as votes are counted immediately as they are cast.
1.5 Scope/Limitations Of The Work
This project work is mainly designed to enable the Independent National Electoral Commission to use electronic device to capture voter’s information, check double registration and to allow voters to their cast votes easily and comfortably to promote a more credible election which is efficient and less costly. The dynamic nature of the elections application interface and database structure allows for different organizations set up and conduct basic elections too. Its online interface enables real-time election monitoring and result collation. Some of its major limitations are:
1. It requires network access:
Since the collection and sending of votes to the database requires an internet access which may not be readily available in some urban area would seem a limiting factor, though the local database and the printed vote can be used for counting until network is restored.
2. The cost of setting up an e-voting system is high:
Due to the delicate nature of such a system and the fact that its’ major components are presently not locally source, it would be quite costly to setup, but its usage and maintenance cost is far better than the present ballot paper system.
3. It depends on electricity to a point:
In as much as it has an in-built battery that can last for the required election duration on daily basis, a case of low battery would require it to recharge, which may not be possible if there is no electric power at the moment.
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
The manual system of voting in Nigeria has failed to tackle the basic issues necessary for a clean and trusted voting environment which has evidently driven some of its citizens to apathy.
The E-voting system was implemented to solve the proximity bottlenecks, unnecessary time delays, with very secure, check double registration and accurate recording of votes. The system has been thoroughly tested in voting accuracy, ruggedness, responsiveness, battery life expectancy, and security by means of simulation and mini voting sessions to be a successful one.
It is seen that the system is fault tolerant at all end points (registration, voting platform and the server). The voting device can last for more than 6 hours which is very sufficient for a quick system like ours.
This system will provide boundless voter participation in remote areas with very little or no cost on the voter greatly reducing apathy. Further improvements can be done on the system to increase the credibility of the votes and further reduce proximity issues.
The following recommendations are made for optimal performance of the system:
- The voting device should be operated in a dry environment with a fairly stable internet connection.
The following functionalities could be added to improve on the project:
- Internet Voting (I-voting): the use of smart phones or any internet connected device to cast votes from any location.
- The registered cards could be integrated into other areas of citizenship authentication and identification such as drivers’ license and e-governance.
Design And Implementation Of A Distributed Database System For National Electoral Commission To Check Double Registration And Voting During Election
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