Design And Implementation Of Database Management Model For Internal Revenue Generation
Local Government is established with the aim of performing some local functions within its area. In doing this, the Local Government requires some funds to finance these local functions. These funds are gotten from Federal Government and State Government. However, the Local Government is faced with a lot of difficulties to source adequate revenue from both the Federal Government and the State Government, hence the internally generated revenue within the Local Government is used to finance this local projects without completely depending on the Federal Government and State Government. During the collection of this internally generated revenue within the local government a lot of errors are being made by the officers and also faced with a lot of difficulties to manage the internally generated revenue information. The proposed system aims to eliminate these short comings in the existing method.
This project helps to review the various sources of internally generated revenue within Akoko-Edo Local Government Area. A data base management model has been developed for Akoko-Edo Local Government Area Igarra Edo State using C-sharp programming language for the interface coding and SQL for developing the data base. This model will help monitor the whole exercise, if it is truly implemented and adopted by Akoko-Edo Local Government Area Igarra Edo State, it will go a long way helping in the management of revenue information of the Local Government.
1.1 Background of the Study
Revenue generation in Nigeria Local Government is principally derived from TAX. Mean while, Tax is a compulsory levy imposed on individual or companies for the various legitimate functions of the state (Oloaye, 2008). Tax is a necessary ingredient for civilization. The history of man has shown that man has to pay tax in one form or the other, that is either cash or in kind, initially to his chieftains and later in a form of organized Government (Oloaye, 2008). No system or rule can be effective whether foreign or native unless it enjoy some measure of financial independence. Local Government in Nigeria has developed over the years. Historically, the development of direct taxation in Local Government in Nigeria can be traced to the period before the British pre-colonial era. Under this period, community tax where levied on communities (Robin, 2004).
Recently, the revenue generation of the Local Government is derived from two main sources, external source and internal source. External sources includes statutory allocation to the Local Government from the State Government to the Local Government in its area of Jurisdictions, borrowing from State Government and other financial institutions, statutory allocation from the Federal account, local rates on markets and shops. While the internally generated sources of finance includes local rates, market taxes, bicycles, trucks, canoes, wheel barrow rates, mechanic shops and so on. Other means of internally generated revenues by the Local Governments are fine charged by customary courts, Local Government business investment rates, fees from schools established by Local Government, shops rates, license fee, marriage registration fee, birth registration fee, Naming of street registration fee excluding any street in the State Capital, tax payable by cattle farmers, merriment on road closure levy, refuse disposal fees, fee collected from amusement centers established and operated by local authorities and so on.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In spite of the of the above source of revenue as stated in the background of the study, the Local Government In Nigeria are faced with a lot of difficulties to manage revenue information which are generated internally within their area of Jurisdiction.
Such problems are:
- The dishonesty on the part of the Local Government Officers in charge of revenue collection which always resulted to a poor internally generated revenue within the Local Government.
- The Machinery put in place for collection of revenue are inadequate hence, most of the Government money is not always collected and this always result to poor generation of funds within the Local Government
- The improper handling of the documents used for the collection of Local Government revenue by the Officers involved gives a proper picture about the whole exercise and thereby enabling the difficulties in managing the exercise by the Local Government administration.
These above mentioned problems gives the need to developing a computerized application model for the Internally generated revenue of Local Governments, which can go a long way to monitor and process the internally generated information of the Local Government and thereby reduce some of these above mentioned problems.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Any application model like this is being motivated by some reasons. Hence, this application model for Local Government internally generated revenue is not an exception. Some of the purposes of this study are:
- To ensure accuracy of final result of internally generated information within the Local Government.
- To prevent the internally generated revenue information within the Local Government from destruction (damage) in case of fire accident.
- There is a need to embrace technology in our Local Government to reduce the level of paper work within the Local Government.
- The knowledge of the techniques of developing a data base management model for internally generated revenue for a Local Government is an Exceptional purpose of this study.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The Local Government is a Government at the Local level established by the law to perform some specific functions within defined areas (Ugoji, 1994). Local Government is vested with substantial powers to take control over Local affairs. In doing, the Local Government brings Government to the level of the people.
Managing the Local Government requires a proper administration which gave rise to sub-division of the Local Government into Departments. They are Personnel system, bursary system and audit system (unit). In the past, paper where mainly used in processing every information within the sub-division in the Local Government affairs, this is also applicable mainly to the Local Government.
However, this information are now stored as electronic images on the computer, constituting the data base of the administration in the Local Government Council. The computer allows officers to successfully handle large amount of data than the Local Government Officer could when done manually.
Applying computer in Local Government Council has given a high degree of accuracy in processing all information within the Local Government administration. It has grown to the extent of reducing the level of paper work in today’s Local Government Council.
The computer has large storage capacities and very accurate in handling and processing data. Computers are used in the Local Government for storing voter’s registration information within the Local Government.
Computers are widely accepted in the Local Government due to their exceptional reliabilities. Computer can produce result at peak speed for a long period of time (Onianwa, 2003). The computer also allow for backup document that were used for generating revenue within the Local Government in case of a missing file that has some vital information of the Local Government.
With the above explained reasons, the importance of this study is to develop a data base management model for Akoko-Edo Local Government Area to generate accurate and quick information concerning the internally generated revenue of the Local Government for quick decision making.
1.5 Research Questions
Some of the research questions to this study are stated below.
- What are the aim and objective of Local Government creation in Nigeria?
- How does Local Government in Nigeria finance the project within their Jurisdiction?
- What are the main sources of revenue to the Local Government?
- How does Local Government generate their revenue internally?
- What are the challenges faced by the Local Government in managing the internally generated revenue during and after revenue generation?
- How can these challenges are properly addressed in order to have a more preferred output.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study is to cover the whole aspect of internally generated revenue within the Local Government in Nigeria with a view of generating accurate and timely information regarding the revenue generation within Akoko-Edo Local Government council in Edo State as stated in the importance of the study.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
However for the purpose of clarity and non-repetition of tasks, and for the fact that the procedure will be used for designing such model for other Local Government in the State. This study has been restricted to one Local Government in the State which is Akoko-Edo Local Government Area Igarra.
Conclusion and Recommendation
This project work has presented a platform for the particular design and development of a data base model for internally generated revenue of Akoko-Edo Local Government Area Igarra, Edo State. This data base model designed will offer more advantages compared to the manual way of handling the internally generated revenue information of the Local Government Area.
This model was design and implemented using C# programming language compiler (visual studio), SQL server (2005 version) and some web technologies to achieve its aim.
If this model is truly implemented and adopted fully by Akoko-Edo Local Government Area Igarra, Edo State, will go along way helping in the management of the revenue information of the local government.
Based on the research findings, the following recommendation is put forward by the researcher.
- The software in this project work is designed to cater for the internally generated revenue information of Akoko-Edo Local Government Council. Other Councils in the Nation can as well adopt its usage since it is a prototype model. Its function can as well be customized to suit their Local Government.
- Also, the website designed is not hosted due to time and cost constraints. I want to recommend that a future research work in this direction can take this work to greater heights by hosting or publishing the site.
- The website also caters for just some aspects of the revenue generation information. This is to avoid non-repetition of task in the project; further work can also improve on the software to cater for other aspect of revenue generation.
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