Design And Implementation Of Computer Accounting System Of A Non-Profitable Organisaiton (A Case Study Of Grail Movement Enugu)
It is a well-established fact, that proper financial management and adequate planning is the bedrock of every successful organization. Reports generated from the accounts are among the major tools used by the management of any establishment for policy formulation major decisions taking etc.
Account is the statement of money paid out or to be paid out by an organization, and the ones received or to be received.
Due to the trend towards automation in world order, more data and information are generated in lesser time and the processes and procedures of conducting business and keeping account becomes more complex and complicated. The manual form of keeping account become more tedious, inefficient and cost ineffective due to huge material and human resources required.
There is need for an alternative to manual processing of account, which will ensure security of data and account information, data validation and accuracy, efficiency in accounting system, prevent un-authorized manipulation of data etc.
This project work critically analyzed the processes and procedures of manual methods of account keeping and the case study “Grail Movement”, carefully designed new more efficient procedure, which was coded into an intelligent software, using a programming language suitable for database management.
Table of Content
- Cover Page
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Statement of Problem
- 1.2 Purpose of the Study
- 1.3 Aims and Objectives
- 1.4 Scope of the Study
- 1.5 Limitation
- 1.6 Assumption
- 1.7 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
3.0 Description and Analysis of the Existing System
- 3.1 Facts Finding Method Used
- 3.2 Organizational Structure
- 3.3 Input, Process, Output Analysis
- 3.4 Objective of the Existing System
- 3.5 Information Flow Diagram
- 3.6 Problem of the Existing System
- 3.7 Justification for the New System
4.0 Design of the New System
- 4.1 Input Specification and Design
- 4.2 Output Specification and Design
- 4.3 File Design
- 4.4 Procedure Chart
- 4.5 System Flow Chart
- 4.6 System Requirements
- 5.1 Program Design
- 5.2 Program Flow Chart
- 5.3 Pseudocodes
- 7.1 Recommendation
- 7.2 Conclusion
In a large organization such as the Grail Movement, the account system is the life wire of the administration not respecting the fact that it is a non-profitable organization. It is through proper accounting, that the management can find out their financial performances and the information gotten help them in planning future routine strategies.
Grail Movement is a non-profitable organization, housing other groups, like the flower group, labour group, and catering group. They raise funds within themselves, from the sales of books, willingly, and through individual pledges.
This project is on a computer based accounting system using “Grail Movement” as a test case. This accounting software attained some degree of flexibility. It is intended to track all source of revenue (i.e. money coming in) and liabilities (i.e. expenditures). It is a user-friendly accounting package, which manages the daily accounting operations and provides for the security of the information in the system, input data validation and restricts access to some vital management information.
This software is able to generate reports on demand and statements needed by management for its decision making while promoting the organization functional establishment. This report ranges from individual donations statement of account, trial balance sheet, debtors & debts to profit and loss account within a specified data interval. The report could be viewed on the screen or printed on paper as desired by user.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Before now, Grail movement has been using manual method of accounting system. This system is characterized with many problems which necessitated its computerization. Among these problems are:-
Inconcurrency of Entered Data
Due to human error, the accountant, after entering the right data from the invoice to the appropriate journal, may come back to post-incorrect amount to the general ledger.
This is a situation where the necessary addition is not able to balance with the corresponding subtractions. This human error might be due to fatigue.
Manual accounting system is prone to fraud. This is trough the distortion of data in the account book, cause by unauthorized access to the book and it’s insecurity.
Poor Documentation And Distorted Record Keeping
This is a situation, where the account books cannot be stored for a long period of time.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
This study has the purpose of designing and implementing a computerized accounting package.
This accounting system will attain some degree of flexibility, be able to produce the required report on demand, be reliably effective and accurate.
1.3 Aims of Objective
This project is aimed at producing optimal solution to the problems inherent in manual system of accounting in Grail Movement. The objectives include.
Having a computerized accounting at Grail movement organization, the work of the account and his co-workers we reduced to a minimum. The job becomes simpler and easier to tackle and can be accomplished within a short period of time.
The old system is intended to be computerized, so that it’s operations could be performed faster and reports generated on demand for quicker decision making by the management.
To be able to obtain at any point in time, an error-free and up-to-date financial state of the organization. An accurate and timely financial statement or information is a good tool for such decision-making.
Using the computerized accounting software saves grail movement the burden of creating work than one file, for a particular item (i.e. of similar content). The system should be able to detect existing entries and not produce copies unless the former to deleted.
This accounting package will reduce access time to stored data as inquires could be made and information gotten without stress.
Using this software, a neat, tidy and error-free report will be obtained. Also work free of mutilation and cancellations will be produced. The output gives joy and contentment to one who uses it.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This project is intended to cover a wide area, dealing with the methods of fund raising and services rendered. It deals with the entry of moner or transaction made by the company within the account department.
Daily transactions are entered in their respective destinations and accounts balanced accordingly. These entries are posted or transferred to the general ledger module, which is an integration of other subsidiary module. The general ledger is the powerhouse of the system.
At the end of each accounting month/year, the financial statements are produced, neat and error-proof. These include:-
- Income statement (income and expenditure account)
- Balance sheet
The calculations necessary for the accurate and speedy as well as neat production of these statements are also taken into consideration.
There was inadequacy of time for conducting a more detailed study, so as to achieve greater flexibility of the software package and to cover a wider area of account system for a broader generation of report.
However, it would be emphasized here that these limitations do not in anyway invalidate the findings, as proper cares was taken to avoid adverse effect on the study.
In order to establish a solid and unambiguous base, which will facilitate the test of the selected variable, the researcher made the following assumption.
- That the Grail Movement Enugu, chosen for the research is a true representation of a non-profitable organization operating in all the states in Nigeria and internationally
- That Grail movement generates funds by individual pledges and donations.
- It is also assumed that grail movement distributes fund to it’s various group, according to their purposes for its up-keep.
- Finally, the designer assumed that this accounting package is well known to the computer operator. The user is expected to have known or undergone some training on computer applications, so as to fully use the package.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Amount you are owing salary earners.
Amount made by pledges to be redeemed.
A document prepared by a supplier, requesting payment for goods and services provided.
Money that is going out or being given out appears on the left-hand side of an account. All applications of money are debit..
A financial statement that shows the financial position of a business at a particular date.
Recommendation and Conclusion
I have tried in justifying why automated accounting system in our organizations is necessary from the analysis, we said that a lot of inconveniencies and financial indiscipline are pegged with automated accounting system.
In the light of the above remarks, I wish to make the following recommendations.
- That further research in the area of automated accounting continue with those who want expedition services in management finance and accounting.
- That top management organization and else work have complex administration and more workers invest in computerized accounting.
- That an exploited areas not covered in this work such as more complex accounting talk live variation accounting and banks participation be pursued to further studies of this kind.
- That government should come up in an achievable objectives on how to acquire, maintain, utilize and install computers in government parastatals.
Accounting is an indispensable operation of any business. Terms like assets, costs, expenses, liabilities, capital, profit to mention a few, could be used by a layman casually. To the accountant, they are used preciously.
Accounting applications were among the first user of digital computer. Computerized accounting is very vital and inevitable its uniqueness ranges from the fact that it can be used by organizations to keep proper records of accounting information, which are likely to be forgotten. Computerized accounting can be used by individuals, households and others for this reason, virtually everyone who reviews and spend money has a knowledge of account. The current status of accounting, intermediate financial statements and other reports can be viewed on the screen, thereby avoiding the necessity of printing a report every time it is needed.
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