The Design And Implementation Of A Four – Way Traffic Light Control Circuit

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


This work has been aimed at efficient means of controlling the traffic effectively for twenty-four hours. As the world is growing technologically more and more vehicles jump into the public road adding to the already existing number. Consequently, more efficient way of controlling the traffics becomes more desirable as compared to the obsolete way of using the traffic personnel’s.

The design of this traffic light control is grouped basically into three; digital logic design, the power circuit and the power supply design. The digital logic design is based on integrated circuits which happens to be the modern way of designing digital systems, the power circuit design is aimed at lighting the different LEDS as and when due, while the power supply design strives to achieve a constant 8V dc supply for powering the circuit.

For this work, the frame with the LEDS mounted on it has been constructed, the driven circuit was implemented and the entire system enclosed in the smoothened frame.

The realized work was tested and guaranteed to give a firmly good level of performance.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 aims of the project
  • 1.2 Methodology

Chapter Two

2.0 A Review on the Traffic Light Control System

  • 2.1 The Power supply unit
  • 2.2 The transformer
  • 2.3 The rectifier
  • 2.4 The filter
  • 2.5 The Voltage Regulator
  • 2.6 The Digital Logic Circuit
  • 2.7 The Oscillator
  • 2.8 The Counter
  • 2.9 The Decoder
  • 2.10 The Logic Gates
  • 2.11 The Power Circuit
  • 2.12 The Booster/Amplifier Stage
  • 2.13 The Lamp/LEDS

Chapter Three

3.0 The Traffic Light Control

  • 3.1 The Power Supply Design Specifications
  • 3.2 The Transformers
  • 3.3 Rectifier
  • 3.4 The Filter Capacitor
  • 3.5 The Voltage Regulator
  • 3.6 The Digital Logic Design
  • 3.7 The Oscillator
  • 3.8 The 4017 Decade Counter
  • 3.9 The output Logic Gate Circuit

Chapter Four

4.0 Problem Encountered

  • 4.1 Construction and Testing
  • 4.2 Cost Analysis
  • 4.3 The overall Circuit Diagram of the $-way Traffic Light Control

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References.

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

In the ever fast-growing world of business and technology today, there has become an increasing column of vehicles on every road in different place of the world. Traffic control light has become a very effective tool for sequential control of the teaming number of vehicles on the road to avert what would have been a recurrent saga of ghastly accidents at the junctions. There have been many ways of achieving this, uppermost among these being the employment of electronic monitoring circuits that which is controlled by presto clock.

In developed countries, the employment of traffic personnels who would be jumped up and down at the centres of the junction just for the motorists to acknowledge their rigorous signs has long come of age. In developing countries where 24 hours traffic flow is involved, many societies are adopting the usage of the traffic light control. The advantage offered by this method of traffic control cannot be over emphasized.

For one, it offers a more advanced technology that is less prone to miscalculation and its regrettable occurrence. They stand out better at night, then offer illumination to the immediate surroundings which become important for security purpose and in general add to there entire aesthetic beauty of night life.

The technology behind the design may vary from place to place, but the fact remains that in all cases an electronic (logic) circuit is made to control a power circuit. The electronic logic circuit is normally composed of the basic digital components of electronic design which includes oscillators, timers, counters, decoders, microprocessors, etcetera, while the power circuit includes the lamps and the drivers circuits. The digital circuit is designed to give an output commensurate to the design choice. The power supply unit is designed to generate a steady supply voltage which is used to power the logic circuit.

The output consists of a series of lamps which are expected to light in a particular sequence depending on the design. By the logic circuit design, the lamps are made to come up in a particular sequence depending on the design with each colour meaning different motional status of the vehicles in that column.


1.1 Aim Of The Project

Going by the rapid advancement in technology all over the world, the need for better ways of solving a problem keep coming up every day. Necessity is the mother of invention. It has become imperative for societies, companies, industries, business ventures, clubs etc to offer 24 hour service, hence thereby has to be a way of controlling the teaming column of vehicles which convey both individuals and goods to different destinations of that type.

The most elegant way of directing the motorists is by the use of traffic light control. This type of control serves a dual purpose. In the day type it directs the vehicles, whereas it turns out to additionally illuminating the environment in the night, so that at very far distance, its effect is noticeably felt, conveying its message to an oncoming vehicle very far from the point.

The project is therefore aimed at building a prototype four-way traffic light control circuitry.


1.2 Methodology

Priority was given to the nature of the junction and how far away they are at different seasons of the year. A lot of design research was carried out on digital logic design and choice of digital families. Data books were consulted to make the most suitable choice of components at the most reasonable cost.

After the design, a market survey was conducted and some components used in the design were not obtainable in the market. Hence, alternative components had to be used and the circuit redesigned. The subsequent stage involves physically realizing the design work, constructing and packaging the entire circuitry on the frame. Finally, he work was given a fine finish and tested.


Chapter Five


Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

  1. In conclusion, it is pertinent to state that despite all the hitches arising from the unavailability of components and materials and technological drawbacks, the design and construction of this four way traffic light control was successfully realized. And as a matter of fact, since we are in a technological advancing world, I strongly believe that it takes nothing less than pure determination and the ability to respond to such changes to survive in the present rapidly improving standards of the world system. So being aware of all these challenges, I made special effort to examine the technological problems encountered and also made additional modification in order to enhance the services of this design.
  2. Based on the ease of manufacture, cost, user-friendly, reliability, safety, durability etcetera, for the design of such public used product, this exquisite project has been made as simple as possible. This project also has been made as complete as required considering mostly the economic factor, and cost of materials for private and public uses which determine the response of the user towards the acquisition of such product.
  3. During the course of this design some unforeseen problems were encountered, but were meticulously rectified. Hence, locating of faults were easy during the testing.
  4. Finally, it is essential to say that the experience we gathered in the design and construction of this project has been rewarding.

5.2 Recommendation

In view of the theoretically and practical constraints encountered in the course of this project, we make the following general recommendations;

  1. It is important that much research should be done on the work in other to make it synchronize with the present day advancement in technology.
  2. A much more improved and detailed circuit should be used in the future to enable the system perform more functions.
  3. The government should encourage the research into this field by promoting it through the installation of such system in government established offices and quarters.

The Design And Implementation Of A Four – Way Traffic Light Control Circuit


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