The Design And Fabrication Of A Pilot Production Plant For Paints (Emulsion And Texcoat)

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME


Abstract


The concept of this project is to actualize a practical way of paint production using a locally design mixing machine which is design to meet a low cost and high standard paint.

The project cut across all forms of engineering, such as mechanical machine design of a simple industrial mixer, which is driven by an electrically made device, a 3 HP electric motor, chemically reacting reagents such as water, calcium carbonate, etc to produce the desired product which is aim to be used as coat for Mechanical Agricultural and Civil structures.

The project research exposes to students and entrepreneur to total knowledge necessary for the production of emulsion and texcoat using a single mixer irrespective of the volume of production. Self help project is the only sustainable solution to the problem of unemployment. Many unemployed youth can lay their hiring. The project research is a modest presentation of simplified facts on the for entrepreneur success at a low coat.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Letter of transmittal
  • Authority page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • Introduction
  • Objectives of the research work
  • Uses and economics
  • Importance of study
  • Benefits of the project

Chapter Two

  • Literature review
  • Historical
  • Design of mixing machine
  • Recognition of need
  • Definition of problem
  • Planning for production
  • Planning for use
  • Process of design
  • Factors that determine choice of material
  • Packaging of product (ames paint)

Chapter Three

  • Design of machine/sequence of operation
  • Design and construction details
  • Design factors/construction of the principles
  • Construction procedures

Chapter Four

  • Paint production
  • Latex paint
  • White wash
  • Paint composition
  • Paint constituents for emulsion
  • Quality control
  • Chalking, abrasion, hardness & adherence
  • Formation of emulsion paint 20 litres
  • Formation of texcoat (20 litres)

Chapter Five

  • Characteristics of the project
  • Performance of the project
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

A pilot production plant for paint is a chain une of pant production, from the design of the machine, the mixing of the chemical to the packaging. All is aim at production of both (texcoat) and emulsion (water based paints) which are basically classified as one of the two classes of paint.

Paint Can Be Classified Into

– Gloss Paints (Oil Based Paints)

These are paints that may be classified according to whether the drying mechanisms is predominantly solvent evaporation, oxidation or some chemical reaction. Gloss paints which dry essentially by solvent evaporation, rely on a fairly hard resin as the vehicle. Paints which dry by oxidation, the vehicle is usually an oil or an oil – based varnish, these usually contain driers to accelerate the drying of the oil. Paint based essentially on oil with suitable pigment such as Titanium dioxide, extenders, and usually zinc – oxide and white lead are conventional outside house paints because these materials give the combination of the properties which meet this requirement.

– Emulsion/Texcoat Paints (Water – Based Paints)

These are paints with water soluble vehicle and they includes calcimines, in which the vehicle is glue an case in paints, in which the vehicle is casein or soybean protein.


Objectives of the Research Work

The objectives of the research project work is to study the formulation, production of a low cost simple mixing machine and the production of paints, both glass and emulsion in with the use of local pigment and extenders as raw materials. This is highly beneficial for small scale for hence the cost of production is far reduced compared to paint produce by industries using imported machines and materials.

Uses and Economics

Paints preserve architectural structure from weather attacks. Uncoated wood and metal deteriorate, especially in present of soot, C. and sulphur dioxide, S02. Thus, S02 in the atmosphere reacts with water vapour, both gases (g), to form aqueous 9aq) S02 which reacts further with water to form sulphuorus acid, H2 S04, from which S032 reacts with metals, eg copper CU2+ as follows

(S02) (g) + H20 (S02) (aq)

(S02) (aq) + H20 H2 S03

S032- + CU2+ S03- + CU+

Importance of Study

Paints also increase the attractiveness of manufactured products, as well as the aesthetic appeal of dwelling. Thus, paints serve utility and art purpose. In the United State of America, paints annual sales clocked N4 billion (100 billion) in 1971, industrial paints for the first time sold more than architectural paints, indicating a shift in trend. This highlights the importance of paint ventures in a developing economy, such as Nigeria’s.

Benefits of the Project

Students and industrialists alike in developing countries lack the basic and simplified techniques on pants making; yet paints are a class of products that serves important aesthetic, protection and functional values. The few available paints makers are so specialized or professional in presentation that the seem scaring to interested students and industrialist. The objective of the project pilot production plant for pant simplified paint making; thereby motivating entrepreneur aspiring in pant making given them adequate viable market as a result of low cost of production.


Chapter Five


Characteristics of the Project

The pilot production plant for paints should be among in such a way that production will be in a sequence from the first programme until product is packaged all arrange in a square are of about 4500 mm2.

The weight of the industrial mixer is approximately 200kg and should be able to stand firm while mixing a volume of 200 litres and below.


Performance of the Project

The efficiency of the machine is calculated to be approximately 80%. The mixer should mix a maximum load not more than 200 liters in volume and viscosity of.

The expected useful life of the pilot production plant, having being design, fabricated, assembled and tested under full loading capacity for 6 – 10 hours per day, 7 day per week ad 52 weeks for a year operation should not be less than 15 years. Through maintenance must be regularly conduct a list between one month.

Cost Of The Item

S/NOITEMQUANTITYCOST (N)
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Company research

Electric motor

Steel sheet

Pulley

Belt

Electric cable

Nut and bolt

Shaft

Bearing seat

Bearing

Switch control

Paint (oil)

Chemicals

Bowel

20 liter bucket

Project design

Stickers design

Water

Source of energy

Grease

Electrodes

1 consultation Fee

1

2

2

7

6 yards

2

1

2

Two (2)

1

1 tin

 

1

30

 

40

150 liters

NEPA

1 cup

1 pack

1,000

15,000

10,000

1,000

500

1,000

200

1,000

500

200

3,500

750

35,000

3,000

15,000

1,000

4,000

100

200

250

1,000

TOTAL 94,200

Labour Cost

Number of labour force = 9 persons
Number of hour per day = 6
Number of working days = 5
Cost of labour per day = 500
Total cost of labour per day = N500 x g = N4,500
Total cost of labour
4500 x 5 = N22,500

TOTAL PROJECT COST

TOTAL SUM for a pilot production plant of paint and 14 bucket produced sample with 30 packaging unit

= cost of items + cost of labour
= 94,200 + 22,500
= N116700

If we are to increase the volume of production and producing machine multiplied the cost of production will reduce. Having compared the cost of the project and the imported counterpart sold in the market. One will observe that the cost of production of the entire plant locally is much more cheaper than buying the ones that are solid in the market, as their practices varies from N400,000 and above.


Conclusion

This project research has given us direct and comprehensive way of producing Emulsion and texcoat paint using a locally design pilot production plant for paint. The locally design approach can price and comparable quality.
We were able to visualize the whole of the construction in the correct perspective from the basic component materials and tooling through the step – by – step designing, fabrication final assembly, inspection and operation on producing samples.

The emulsion and texcoat paint samples produced showed good emulsion paint performance and can strand the test of time in the sense that their opacity, blushability, covering power and performance against weather and other factors were excellent.

However, with the few available materials and finding from our sponsors, the practical actualization of the design, fabrication and operation of the pilot plant meet the required specification and need was realized.

Finally, it can be conveniently concluded that the project is taskful between the process is quite rigorous, moreso, it is quite interesting as well as we therefore recommend the economic rundown of the project and product showed that it is a feasible project; that is worth embarking on by both the private individual and the corporate bodies, who want to enjoy the benefit of harnessing and utilization of the abundant local raw material and talents in the country.


Recommendation

Though there has been improvement in the quality of pants produce in Nigeria, there is still a lot to be done especially by the local manufacturers, government, research engineering and scientist.

The research work has expose sure measure by which the local manufacturer, entrepreneurs and the unemployed can find a grip in the propagation of our economy.

The sample product of this pilot production plant cost less compared to the price of same size and quality in the market. Hence we hereby recommend that the production of locally make pilot production plant for paint be encouraged. It is not only cheaper and economical but also is a way of boasting marketing for our locally made products. This will create viable job opportunities for young school lecturers.

Finally, we recommend this research work to any, who have interest in either construction of the pilot production plant for paint or paint production or both, to research our work to obtain his desire as a self empowered producer of pant.


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