Design And Fabrication Of A Medium Sized Household Biogas Plant

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME

Design And Fabrication Of A Medium Sized Household Biogas Plant


Abstract


The aim of this work is to design and fabricate a prototype design and fabricated unit that will optimally produce biogas for household in Delta state and Nigeria as a whole. The plant will operate on animal wastes, household waste and any other decomposable waste as feeds. The main components of the plant were; the digester, water tank, thermometer, measuring cylinder, cork and hose. The digester was designed using locally available materials (cow dung, chicken droppings) for anaerobic digestion and tested under the existing weather condition in FUPRE, Delta State. The results showed that the quality of biogas produced was improved with an efficiency of up to 20% by reducing the H2S and CO2 content of the biogas to a considerably low concentration after purification. The modified engine was operated for 30minutes at load condition using a range of variable electric loads of incandescent 100watts bulbs, five in number with methane content of 69% and the performance characteristic were noted. The stored biogas generated electricity and the engine performance in terms of electric power output and load bearing capacity was comparable to petrol at load range of 100-500watt, exhaust temperatures were higher above 200W load condition. The work done herein can be used to produce good quality biogas, especially in the rural areas where the substrates are available.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Energy is one basic tool for development. Its application ranges from domestic uses to industrial applications for heating furnaces, lighting and running electric motors and other transport applications. It can thus be referred to as a cornerstone of economic and social development (El-Saeidy, 2010). Due to over dependence on biomass and fossil fuel, developing countries like Nigeria face added dilemmas regarding environmental protection. Adaramola and Oyewola (2011) opined that Nigeria is endowed with huge volume of conventional energy resources (crude oil, tar sands, natural gas and coal) as well as reasonable amount of renewable energy resources (e.g. hydro, solar, wind and biomass). However, there is energy shortage in Nigeria because of less potential energy to harness, making hydropower a less desirable energy source (Okoye, 2007). Projected refining capacity only supports 445,000 barrels a day and actual output of these refineries is far below capacity (Okoye 2007).

Scarcity of petroleum and coal threatens supply of fuel throughout the country.This and problems associated with poorpetroleum products combustion has led to research on renewable energy resources. Solar energy, wind energy, different thermal and hydro sources of energy, biogas are all renewable energy resources. Biogas is distinct from other renewable energiesbecause of its unique characteristics of using, controlling and collecting organic wastes and at the same time producing fertilizer and water for use in agricultural irrigation. Biogas does not have any geographical limitations it does not require advanced technology for producing energy.It is very simple to use and apply(Okafor., 2010).

Fossil fuel is one of the principal sources of energy. 86% of all the energy consumed comes from fossil fuels(Kaliyan and Morey , 2009). There are many problems associated with fossil fuels such as high costs and fluctuation of prices, increase in demand, disruption in supply, and environmental pollution. These problems arise because fossil fuels give off carbon dioxide when burnt thereby causing a greenhouse effect. It is therefore a major contributory factor to global warming experienced today.

Agricultural residues and animal wastes are increasingly being diverted for use as domestic fuel to displace fossils fuel and reduce environmental pollution and reduce emission of greenhouse gases. Cassava solid wastes, amongst other plant wastes have been widely used(Oladeji, 2012). Agricultural residues in their natural forms cannot yield desired result as they are mostly loose and are of low density. More so, their combustion cannot be effectively controlled (Oladeji, 2012). Agricultural residues are thus combined with animal wastes and used in production of biogas.

Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, produced by the breakdown of organic waste by bacteria without oxygen (anaerobic digestion). It contains methane and carbon (IV) oxide with traces of hydrogen sulphide and water vapour. It burns with pale blue flame and has a calorific value of between 25.9-30J/m3 depending on the percentage of methane in the gas. Biogas production is a profitable means of reducing or even eliminating the menace and nuisance of urban wastes in many cities in Nigeria. Consequently, biogas can be utilized in all energy consuming applications designed for natural gas.


1.2 Problem Statement

Energy consumption in Nigeria increases on a relatively high rate. On a global scale. (Iywayemi, 2011)Opined that the Nigerian energy industry is one of the most inefficient in meeting the needs of its customers. Poor energy supply has led to energy scarcity and fluctuation in prices. This is most evident in the persistent disequilibrium in the markets for electricity and petroleum products, especially kerosene and diesel. The dismal energy service provision has adversely affected living standards of the population and exacerbated income and energy poverty in an economy where the majority of the people live on less than 2USD a day.

Coupled with high level of environmental pollution and contamination as a result of present poor management of solid wastes, call for the design and fabrication of a simple, low cost and effective device for the management of the selected solid wastes on one hand and production of fuel (Biogas) on another hand. Anaerobic fermentation is a simple and low cost process which can be economically carried out in rural areas where organic wastes are generated aplenty which otherwise pollute environment and pose health hazards (Labatut A. , 2011).

Unfortunately, biogas technology has not been optimally used on large scale in Nigeria compared with the level as obtained from reports in other countries as China, Korea and Philippines. According to Ezeokoye et al (2013) there is need to popularize biogas technology in Nigeria in view of large population of brewery plants and agricultural. This is to provide effective utilization of brewery effluents and good check of environmental pollution caused by its disposal. This project is therefore meant to come up with a prototype design and fabricated unit that will optimally produce biogas for household in Delta state and Nigeria as a whole.The large quantities of agricultural residues produced in Nigeria can play a significant role in meeting her energy demand.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study

1.3.1 Aim of the Study

The aim of this project is to design and fabricate a medium sized household biogas plant, the developed plant will operate on animal wastes, household waste and any other decomposable waste as feeds.

1.3.2 Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives are to:

  1. To collect waste from bioorganic raw materials.
  2. Optimization and characterization of substrates.
  3. To design and fabricate a prototype biogas plant for household use.
  4. To test the biogas machine with the optimal solution.
  5. To produce manure as by-product of the process that can be used for backyard farming.

1.4 Justification for the Research

Biogas is a form of energy produced when organic materials such as animal excrement or products that are left over from agriculture are fermented easily and at low cost. The advantage of biogas is that it replaces other energy sources for example charcoal, firewood, electricity, liquid petroleum gas and oil. After animal excrement had been fermented in the gas plant it becomes a good quality and odorless substrate, which is better than fresh manure in improving the soil for the agriculture. As an energy source, it prevents deforestation and animal excrement from causing pollution, smell, flies and water pollution in the community. Further, problem of agricultural waste disposal is posing challenges to the farmers and to the general public as this waste constitutes a nuisance to the environment andis an eyesore to the public. Therefore if these wastes could be used to generate energy, it would be a welcomed solution to the problem of waste pollution, disposal and control (Enweremaduet al., 2008a).

Nowadays the use of bio-gas has spread from small farms to big animal farms. It is expected that biogas will be a significant source of energy in the future to preserve the environment, solve the pollution problem and to promote better health to agriculture and community.


1.5 Scope of the Study

This study is limited to the production of biogas from cow dung from Uti cattle market, chicken droppings from the poultry section (deep litter) in Agbarho, Delta State.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusions

From the results of the study conducted, the following conclusions can be made:

  1. The growing use of anaerobic digestion technology has offered two important benefits, environmentally safe waste management and disposal, as well as energy generation.
  2. This work revealed the amount of gas that could be gotten from poultry and cattle dung at different proportions.
  3. 178-litre batch horizontal biogas digester plants were designed and fabricated using locally available materials (cow dung, chicken droppings) for anaerobic digestion and tested under the existing weather condition in FUPRE, Delta State.
  4. The methane contents for all the substrates digested were within the range given in literature. The co-digestion of the cow dung and chicken droppings improved the quality and quantity of methane produced and hence, the heating efficiency.
  5. The quality of biogas produced was improved with an efficiency of up to 20% by reducing the H2S and CO2 content of the biogas to a considerably low concentration after purification.
  6. Findings showed that the stored biogas generated electricity and the engine performance in term of electric power output and load bearing capacity was comparable to petrol at load range of 100-500watt, exhaust temperatures was higher above 200W load condition.
  7. Turning waste into wealth which can serve as source of income generation for impoverished society like Nigeria.

5.2 Recommendation

  1. The work done herein can be used to produce good quality biogas for use locally and internationally.
  2. A comparative study should be carried out so as to establish the optimum use of compost produced from the slurry.
  3. Digesters with heating elements should be designed in other to control the mesophilic and thermophilic ranges that provideoptimum digestion conditions for the production of methane
  4. Further tests should be performed both on site as well as in the laboratory at controlled conditions to verify the contaminants removal rate.
  5. More tests should be conducted in determining the performance of the purifying agents to verify influence on biogas heating value.
  6. A purpose-built clay pot with adequate control to prevent gas leakage could be used as a digester especially in the rural areas where the substrates are available.
  7. Fabrication and adaptation of a higher capacity scrubbing chamber

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Design And Fabrication Of A Medium Sized Household Biogas Plant

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.