Design And Fabrication Of Groundnut Shelling Machine
Groundnut shelling machine was designed and fabricated at the department of Mechanical Engineering, institute of Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic Ilorin aimed at increasing shelling/decorticating efficiency and eliminating drudgery associated with the traditional method of -shelling groundnut and other developed method such as pedal operated methods. The machine is powered by a 1.5 horse power motor at a speed of 1440 revolution per minute. Performance investigation carried out show a good performance of the machine with decorticating efficiency, undecorticating efficiency, machine damage efficiency, cleaning efficiency and output capacity of 92%, 7.5°k, 3%, 85% and 120kg/hour respectively.
Table of Content
- Title page
- Approval Page
- Table of content
- List of Figures
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Project
- 1.3 Justification of the Project
- 1.4 Working Principle
- 2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Methodology
- 3.1 Selection of materials Used
- 3.2 Beater Assembly
- 3.3 The Sieve
- 4.0 Design Analysis
- 4.1 First Stage Design Consideration in New Machine
- 4.2 What is design
- 4.3 Why do we Design
- 5.0 Design Calculator
- 5.1 Decorticating Unit Housing
- 5.2 Fan Blades
- 5.3 Pulleys
- 5.4 Design Calculations
- 5.5 Speed Ratio Analysis
- 5.6 Moment of inertia
- 5.7 Calculation of torque
- 5.8 Calculation of machine Drive power
- 5.9 Tension in the Belt
- 6.0 Advantage
- 6.1 Disadvantage
- 6.2 Application
- 6.3 Maintenance
- 6.4 Autonomous Maintenance Activity
- 6.5 Cleaning
- 6.6 Cleaning is Inspection
- 6.7 Cleaning Process
- 6.8 Visual AIDS to Maintain Correct Equipment Condition
- 6.9 Adjust and Minor Repair
- 6.9.1 Adjust and Minor Sequences
- 6.9.2 The Path to perfect Safety
- 6.9.3 Chronic Defects
- 6.9.4 Equipment Improvement
- 6.9.5 Equipment Responsibilities of Operator
- 6.9.6 Precautions and safety measures
- 6.9.7 Precaution
- 6.9.8 Safety Measures
- 6.9.9 Recommendation for school
- 6.9.10 Conclusion
List of Figure
- Fig 1 Isometric view of Groundnut shelling machine
- Fig 2 Side view of Groundnut shelling machine
- Fig 3 Orthographic of Groundnut shelling machine
- Fig 4 Front view of Groundnut shelling machine
- Fig 5 Groundnut shelling machine
- Quantity | Symbol | Unit
- Power of Electric Motor | P | watts
- Rotational speed of driver shaft | Nr | rpm
- Rotational speed of driver shaft | Nn | rpm
- Torsional moment | Mt | Nm
- Bending moment on shaft | Mb | Nm
- Combined shock and fatigue
- Factor applied to bending moment | Kb
- Combined shock and fatigue factor
- Applied to torsional moment | Ki
- Diameter of shaft | Ds | mm
- Allowable stress | Ss | N/mm2
- Speed of driven pulley | Sn | rad/sec
- Speed of driver pulley | Sr | rad/sec
- Length of shaft | Ls | mm
- Weight of beater assembly | Wb | N
Groundnut is grown mainly in the Northern parts and middle belt of Nigeria. Today we see photographs of pyramids of groundnut taken during the colonial era which has since then disappeared. Some schools of thought attributed this to quite a number of local industries now utilizing them which before were stored as pyramid waiting for export. The Government of Nigeria through its Agricultural programme has seen the need to explore to grow crops including groundnut for many reasons including:
- Meeting local consumption needs
- Stop importation and conserve fund for other uses:
- Meeting local industrial uses
- Earn foreign exchange through export
- Create huge employment of the citizen
Groundnut of botanical name Arachis hypogea belongs to the family leguminous. It is a herbaceous plant of which there are two major varieties, bunch and runner. Bunch varieties, common in the United States, grow 30-46cm high and do not spread. Runner varieties, the most common in West African, are shorter and spreads along the ground for 30-60cm. it is grown as an annual crop on about 19 million hectares in tropical regions and warmer areas of temperature regions of the world, principally for its edible oil and protein rich kernel or seeds, borne in pods, which develops and mature below the soil surface. (Asiodu, 1989)
Large cultivation of any agricultural product will also be faced with post harvest challenges. Generally, post harvest handling involves some transforming of the harvested products into materials stored and preserved for further processing. In the case of groundnut that is harvested as pods, it is dried and then processed by shelling / decorticating it to kernels for all users.
Traditional methods of shelling groundnut are done using hand with finger tips or using mortar and pestle. Whichever method is used, it is associated with drudgery, pains at the joints and blistering of fingers. The quality of kernels is mainly determined by the percentage of whole undamaged kernel.
The factor among others has mad the decortications of groundnut an important process that must be developed to enhance value addition and also remove human efforts and also remove human efforts and associated difficulties when using traditional method of shelling such as losses labour intensity, time consuming and low output capacity.
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Project
In our country due to heavy cultivation of groundnut there is a need of shelling the ground nuts and obtaining the peanuts in safe, fast and economic form. The agricultural industries in our country heavy machines to do the same but the farmers in rural areas and in small industries its necessary to have a economical and high efficiency machine which can easy bark the groundnut shell, to get this done many machines are use some are universal nutsheler, rubbertyersheller etc.
Hence we, the group of our class found the need of designing and manufacturing such a system will make the peanuts easily come out from its shell and the peanuts too not get broken while the shelling is taking place.
1.3 Justification of the Project
Our design improves on the prior art because it is inexpensive, small scale, and does not need outside help to build. The materials and tools are readily available and do not require communication with external parties to be built.
Big commercial systems are simply too expensive of our target market. Even the hand cranked machines cost upwards from £130.
The Malian peanut Sheller is also a good low cost alternative but it requires the builder to have molds to make the concrete components. If the builder has access to fiberglass materials to make molds out of, it is easy for him to build the device. If he does not have access and buy the molds at through the United States, which may be very expensive. We aim to eliminate the need for molds and the need for outside parties. Our machine requires no foreign assistance at all. It can be built using local materials by the local craftsmen. There is no need for builders to communicate and interact with foreign parties.
Our approach to solving the peanut shelling problem is to use the concept of the rubber tire design but make it affordable and easy to build with locally accessible materials. The machine itself is very easy to build, and requires few skills besides basic carpentry. Our concept does away with costs and complexity of is simple; extruded steel and other common components are easy to find. The concept is simple and the design is modular. So it can be expanded of higher through put is desired. Locally accessible materials may differ in different regions. So our design can be adapted to use different materials. The second component of our system is a device that separates the shelled kernels from the shells. Prior designs for separation equipment use forced air to carry the shells away from the kernels. Since forced air requires complex fan units and extra power. We designed a separation machine that does not depend on air currents. Our design uses the gravity property of the kernels to separate them from the husks. The round kernels to separate to the shell fragments. Which are flat and may have fibers sticking out at the broken edges. Our separator places the combined kernels and shells onto an inclined plane where the round kernels roll down the plane, and the shell fragments stick on the sloped.
1.4 Working Principle
The peanut sheller is made of a used tire mounted in a metal housing with a concave wire screen bottom. As the wheel is rotated the nuts enter the space between the tire and the screen. In operation, groundnut in the hopper is fed into the clearance between the rubber tire and the concave while the rubber tire is turning. The groundnut is then shelled by rubbing action between the rubber tire and the wire mesh. After the groundnut has been shelled, the kernel and the shell fall through the wire mash into a collecting pan separation of the shell from the kernel has to be done separately.
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- It requires no power for its operation
- It is easy to maintain
- It requires no skill for its operation being performed
- It is cheap as compared to other sheller
- Sometimes the groundnuts break into pieces
- Manually operated so now fluctuation speed of tire resulting into stucking of peanuts in wire mesh
- Can be used in small industries
- Used in farms
- Where large amount of groundnut is to be shelled
No machine in the universe is 100% maintenance free machine.
Due to its continuous use its undergoing water and tear of the crusting parts. The rubber tyre and wire mesh is continuously subjected to bending and wear.
6.4 Autonomous Maintenance Activity
- Conducting initial cleaning and inspection
- Eliminate source or dirt, debris, excess lubrication e.t.c
- Improve cleaning maintainability
- Understand equipment functioning
- Develop inspection skills
- Develop standard checklist CLAIR cleaning, lubricating, Adjustment, inspection
- Why cleaning?
- Prevent or eliminate contamination
- Why Cleaning?
- Prevent or eliminate contamination
- Find ways to simplify the cleaning process
- Facilities through inspection when done by knowledgeable operators and 1 or maintainers
6.6 Cleaning is Inspection
6.7 Cleaning Process
- What to look for when cleaning?
- Missing wear
- Rust and corrosion noise
- Cracks Proper alignment
- Leaks Play or sloppiness
6.8 Visual Aids to Maintain Correct Equipment Condition
- Match mark on nut and bolts
- Color making of permissible operating ranges on dials and gauges
- Marking of fluid type and flow direction of pipes
- Making at open/closed position on values
- Labeling at lubrication inlets and tube type
- Marking minimum/maximum fluid levels.
- Label inspection sequences
6.9 Adjust and Minor Repair
- Minor repair if
- Performs safety
- Simple tool required
- Not longer than 20/30 minutes
6.9.1 Adjust and Minor Sequences
- Minor repairs if
- Performs safety
- Simple tool required
- Not longer than 20/30 minutes.
6.9.2 The Path to Perfect Safety
Challenge beliefs, change behaviors and check continuously
Vulnerable— reactive compliant proactive resilient
6.9.3 Chronic Defects
6.9.4 Equipment Improvement
- Restore obvious deterioration throughout
- Establish plan select pilot area, determine bottle neck.
- Study and understand the production process.
- Establish goals for improvement.
- Clarify the problem, collect the reference manuals contact resources.
- Conduct evaluation through such techniques as RCM
- Analysis, FMECA, FTA (Root cause failure analysis).
- Determine improvement priorities, costs and benefits.
- Execute improvement in plot area standardize technique and document what you have done.
- Monitor result and optimize based on these results.
6.9.5 Equipment Responsibilities of Operator
- Operation with the proper standard procedure
- Failure operation Failure resolution
- Inspection Equipment up keep
- Cleaning Lubricating
- Lightning fastener Minor repairs
- Trouble shooting
6.9.6 Precautions and Safety Measures
Following are the precautions and safety measure are taken to make our creation a grand success.
- The rubber tier should be located in the constant speed
- Alignment of rubber tier and wire mesh should be properly done.
- Alignment of tuning handle and rubber tier should be perfect.
- The system should be robustly designed.
6.9.8 Safety Measures:
- Do not tough the wire mesh while rubber tire is in motion
- Do not try to stop the rubber tier immediately with your hands.
6.9.9 Recommendation for School
It is recommended that a motorized oscillating decorticator for commercial production for human and even animal consumption be fabricated using stainless steel material for critical parts at a total cost of N200,000 for a 120 per hour of clean groundnut.
A motorized Oscillating Decorticating machine was successfully designed and fabricated with the inclusion of a fan blower with locally sourced materials for production of clean groundnut seed.
The assembled machine when tested has an output capacity of 120kg hours of clean groundnut seeds and operates at a decorticating efficiency of 92%.