Design And Fabrication Of Basic Static And Dynamic Balancing Machine

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME


Abstract


This work is an attempt to evolve a means for statically and dynamical balancing of mechanical components. This will no doubt evolve greater success in ensuring sound fabrication of our local machine and ensuring that life span of such machine is prolonged since vibration will be reduced to the bearest minimum.

Every wheel and its shaft have to be in a state of balanced, two mating shaft in rotation have to be in a state of static and dynamic balance. This is because unbalance condition produce centrifugal force which increase as the speed of the machine increase, causing damage to machine parts.

To achieve the aim of static and dynamic balancing, various design alternatives for achieving the design solution were synthesized and a choice of economic method which will satisfy the objective was made. Based on the principle guiding the performance of the machine, the dimension and size of the various components was were established and correctly selected and the basic static and dynamic apparatus was fabricated and after testing it was found to satisfy the objective.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Objective
  • 1.2 Scope of the Project

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 What is Balancing
  • 2.2 Type of Unbalance
  • 2.2.1 Static Unbalance
  • 2.2.2 Couple Unbalance
  • 2.2.3 Dynamic Unbalance
  • 2.3 Balancing Equipments

Chapter Three

3.0 Specification of Problem/Synthesis of Solution and Theory of Design

  • 3.1 Background Information/Objective
  • 3.2 Definition
  • 3.3 Condition of Use
  • 3.4 Characteristics
  • 3.5 Performance
  • 3.6 Reliability
  • 3.7 Synthesis of Solution
  • 3.8 Theory of Design
  • 3.8.1 Machine Element and Forces
  • 3.8.2 Balancing of Rotating Masses
  • 3.8.3 Out of balance masses in a common transverse Plane
  • 3.8.4 Out of Balance Masses in Different Transverse Plane

Chapter Four

4.0 Design Calculation of Basic Static and Dynamic Balance Machine

  • 4.1 Approximate Weight of the Balancing Weight
  • 4.2 Force Analysis on Shaft
  • 4.3 Shear Force (SF) Calculation
  • 4.4 Bending Moment Calculation
  • 4.5 Shaft Design
  • 4.6 Motor Belt Analysis
  • 4.7 Bearing Selection

Chapter Five

5.0 Fabrication Procedure/Material Selection/Principle of Operation and Cost Analysis

  • 5.1 Assembly Process
  • 5.2 Material Selection
  • 5.3 Principle of Operation
  • 5.4 Cost Analysis
  • 5.5 Conclusion and Recommendation
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Power transmission in engineering is accomplished by the use of shafts bearings, pulleys, belts, rollers, gears, couplings, etc. Most machine members are linked or interconnected with one another before this power transmission can be effective.

Misalignment or out of balance of shafts or any of these machine members results in excessive viberation which is transmitted to other members and down to the foundation bolt and therefore in—– fatigue stress on the members. Fatigue, probably, is responsible for over 70% of failure of engineering component in operation. Misalignment in shafts and bearing causes excessive load. High speed bearing of aircrafts that may operate at over 20,000 rpm may become catastrophic if there be any unbalance of the members. Out of balance of machine members creates serious problems on the functionality and durability and machine members and on the machine in general.

It is therefore, with the understanding of he sensitivity of balancing in the design of mechanical components and the need to put balancing into consideration in the fabrication of our local machines, the view to determine the level of out of balance and the subsequent balancing of these machine members that necessitated the idea of designing and constructing a Basic Static and Dynamic Balancing Apparatus of this nature.


1.1 Objectives

The objective of this project is to design, construct and test a basic static and dynamic balancing apparatus as one of the ways to prevent premature failure of engineering components due to fatigue loading.


1.2 Scope Of The Project

The basic and dynamic balancing machine covers the fundamental exploits of knowledge to design and construct and static and dynamic balance for any mechanical member since each machine components has its own balance depending on its bulkiness. The basic principle of construction lies on the one chained in our construction. This construction gives illumination for the construction of production and maintenance balance. It also serves as a means of demonstrating static and dynamic balancing in laboratories of higher learning.

Chapter Five


5.0 Fabrication Details/Material Selection/Cost Analysis

Fabrication Procedure

The components of this machine include

  1. Structural stand
  2. Mounting plat form
  3. Bearing housing (plumer blocks)
  4. Weights
  5. Pulleys
  6. Electric motor
  7. Extension shaft
  8. Static weight container
  9. Balancing blocks
  10. Angular scale
  11. Metre role
  12. Bolts & knots

The manufacturing process employed in the manufacture of some of these components include

  1. Cutting
  2. Welding
  3. Machining
  4. Drilling
  5. Threading
Structural Stand

This is made from angle iron (bar). It is rectangular with length 800mn with, 450mn and height 700mn.

Assembly Process

  1. The plumber blocks were put at the correct position on the plat form. They are held on the plat form with bolt and not over a cross bar.
  2. The shaft was then passed through the internal hole of one bearing followed be the angular scale the pulley at centre before passing it through the second bearing.
  3. The pulley on the shaft and electric motor are positioned. The motor was mounted in position and held with bolt and nots.
  4. The pulleys are connected with a v – belt.
  5. The dynamic balancing weight were pot in place.
  6. The metre role is positioned and bolted.
  7. The pointer was pot in place.
  8. The pulley for the static balancing was tightened.
  9. The pans with the rope was hug on the pulley.

Material Selection

1. Structural Stand:

The material used for the structural stand is mild steel angle iron 40m x 40mn. This is due to strength and affordable lost.

2. Top Platform:

The material used for the platform is mild steel sheet of thickness. This is due to its flatness, strength rigidity and affordable cost.

3. Shaft:

The shaft is machined from medium carbon steel round bar. This is due to its strength, ability to withstand combined bending and torisional stress.

4. Dynamic Weight:

The weight are machined from mild steel round bar. This is due to case with which a needed weight would be gotten.

5. Metre Role:

The metre role is made from stainless steel. This is due to strength, case of maintenance, strength.

6. Plumber Blocks:

The plumber blocks are made of high speed steel (HSS). It is chosen because it will accommodate any range of speed.

7. Pulley:

One is made of mild steel while the other is made of cast iron. Availability, strength.

8. Pans:

They are made of plastic materials. This is due to its availability and meeting up with the requirement.

9. V – belt:

It is made up of re-inforced fabric. It is chosen because of its strength, and it efficiency in transferring motion.

10. The Angular Scale:

This is made up of plastic material. It is chosen because of its uniform caliberation and is availability.

11. Pointer:

The pointer is made of mild steel rod. This is because it can be easily be fixed to the shaft, strength.

12. Static Weights:

They are made from mild steel.


Cost Analysis

The naira value/equivalent saved by increased efficiency is on expression of the benefits of the uses or application of the static and dynamic balancing machine.

Taking into account the economics of the machine and the production process, it follows by definition that “cost analysis is the statement of the total cost of production of the machine. This covers the cost of material, cost of transportation labour and other miscellaneous empowers.
Shown below is the table of the cost.

Cost Analysis

Labour / Fabrication Cost

Description of Job Cost (N)

  • Machining 6000
  • Cutting 500
  • Welding 2000
  • Threading 400
  • TOTAL 8900
Miscellaneous Cost

All other cost such as feeding that cannot be directly determined are hereby is estimated as N5000.00.
Hence ground total of cost of fabrication of the basic static and dynamic machine is 25100 + 8900 + 5000
= N39000.00

Maintenance / Safety Measure

To ensure the acceptable standard of the machine, the machine should be cleaned of dust as part of preventive maintenance to avoid rusting of the steel method and balancing blocks should be lubricated when unused in order to prevent rusting and safety measure include exposing it to high temperature source of heat to avoid melting of the plastic components. Since it is an apparatus that is useful in the laboratory, it should be kept were no dropping load could damage the components.


Recommendation

The basic static and dynamic balancing machine is a technological exploit of a way to demonstrate static $ dynamic balancing in a simpler way in the laboratory as well as a base specific type of machine that could statically $ dynamically balance components hence further improvement should include vibrometer to measure degree of vibration and measure to corre3ctely add the mass or remove mass to or from the component under test for more industr4ial practicability.


Conclusion

The prototype, base static and dynamic balancing machine has been designed, constructed and tested and was found to effectively serve the purpose for while it was intended.

It I s single and practically easy to operate. It has an edge of most balancing apparatus manufactured in the country due to its simplicity of operation and its practicability.

This work should therefore be a motivating force and challenge to our indigenous engineers to strive towards technology break through. Federal government should pure money into research. So as to encourage our engineers in making more research in making more research in order to develop new or improve on machines.


Design And Fabrication Of Basic Static And Dynamic Balancing Machine


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