Design And Constructions Of A Robot Control System Using RF Module

Computer Science Project Material with Source Code Included

Computer Science Project Material with Source Code Included


The robot control using an RF module is simply a robotic system whose control and functioning is achieved by the use of a radio frequency based remote. This project implements the principle of artificial intelligence to develop a mobile robot that is controlled using the hand held remote device controlled from a distance away from the robots position. The project is implemented with 8051 microcontroller which forms the heart of the project. The microcontroller controls both the remote control and the robot controlled in the project. The 8051 microcontroller is used to make all the necessary calculations that are required for the operation of the robot.

The robot also consists of the RF module which is simply a radio frequency transmitter and a receiver pair which has the ability to support digital operations. The system comprises of the transmitter unit and the receiver unit. The transmitter is implemented on the hand held control unit (remote) of the project which is used to send the control signals required for the directional control of the robot while the receiver decodes the transmitted message and uses the signal to control the operation of the robot.

The project also consists of the LCD (liquid crystal display) unit which is used to display all necessary information required for the operation of the project. In the operation of the project, the user simply selects the direction he requires the toy car shaped robot to run and this is transmitted to the receiver which in turn decodes the massage and uses the information to control the robot to the desired direction.

Table of Contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Objective of the study
  • 1.3 Significance of the study
  • 1.4 Scope of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Historical Review of Robots
  • 2.3 Review of Related Project Works
  • 2 Embedded System
  • 2.5 Description of the Project
  • 2.6 Modification from Other Designs

Chapter Three

3.0 Design and construction

  • 3.1 Acquisition of Research Materials
  • 3.2 Project Design
  • 3.2.1 The power supply unit
  • 3.2.2 The Rectification
  • 3.2.3 The Filtration
  • 3.2.4 The Voltage regulation Unit
  • 3.2.5 The MCU oscillation input unit
  • 3.2.6 Finding the period circle
  • 3.2.7 The reset circuit
  • 3.2.8 The Microcontroller Unit
  • 3.2.9 Features ofAT89S52:
  • 3.2.10 The Keyboard Unit
  • 3.2.11 The Concept of RF Transmission
  • 3.2.12 Properties of RF
  • 3.2.13 Brief Description of RE
  • 3.2.14 RE Advantages
  • 3.2.16 RF Disadvantages
  • 3.2.17 RE Transmitter
  • 3.2.18 Factors Influenced to Choose STT-433MHz
  • 3.2.19 Pin description
  • 2220 Features
  • 3221 RF Receiver
  • 3.2.22 The Relay Driver Unit
  • 3.2.24 The LCD Display Unit
  • 3.2.25 The System Operation
  • 3.3 System Circuit Diagram
  • 3.4 Construction
  • 3.4.1 Constructional Layout Design:
  • 3.4.2 Assemb1y Placement of Components.
  • 3.4.3 Soldering Process
  • 3.4.4 The Mechanical Fabrication Unit

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Testing and Results
  • 4.2 Cost Analysis of the Project

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Recommendation
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • References
  • Appendix

Table of Figures

  • Figure 2.1: The Block Diagram of the Project
  • Figure 3.1: Circuit Diagram for the Power Supply Unit
  • Figure 3.2: The Circuit for a Bridge Rectifier
  • Figure 3.3: Circuit Showing Capacitor Filtration
  • Figure 3.4: Circuit Diagram for the Regulator Unit
  • Figure 3.5: The Oscillation Circuit Of 8051
  • Figure 3.6: Pin Configuration of the AT89CS1 Microcontroller
  • Figure 3.7: The Keypad Unit
  • Figure 3.8: the RF Module
  • Figure 3.9: Relay Driver Circuit Using Single Transistor Figure 3.10: Interfacing the LCD to the 8051 MCU
  • Figure 3.11: The Generalized Circuit Diagram for the Project
  • Figure 3.12: Thet font 3D View of the Mechanical Design
  • Figure 3.13: The Top 3D View of the Project
  • Figure 3.14: The back View of the Mechanical Design of the Project

List of Tables

  • Table 4.1: Test and Results Table
  • Table 4.2: The Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation of the Project

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks automatically or with guidance, typically by remote control. In practice a robot is usually an electro mechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming. Robots can be autonomous, semi-autonomous or remotely controlled. Robotics can be described as the current pinnacle of technical development. Robotics is a confluence science using the continuing advancements of mechanical engineering, material science, sensor fabrication, manufacturing techniques, and advanced algorithms.

There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone and many people have their own. For example Joseph Eagleburger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: can’t define a robot, but I know one when I see one.” According to the Encyclopedia Britannica a robot is “any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner.” The word “robot” comes from the Czech word “Robota,” which means “slave-like labor “ or “forced-work”. Merriam-Webster describes a robot as a “machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being”, or a “device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks”, or a “mechanism guided by automatic controls”, Robotics can be defined as the science or study of the technology primarily associated with the design, fabrication, theory, and application of robots. While other fields contribute the mathematics, the techniques, and the components, robotics creates the magical end product. The practical applications of robots drive development of robotics and drive advancements in other sciences in turn. Crafters and researchers in robotics study more than just robotics.

When societies first began developing, nearly all production and effort was the result of’ human labor, as well as with the aid of semi- and fully domesticated animals. As mechanical means of performing functions were discovered, and mechanics and complex mechanisms were developed, many tasks began to require less for human labor.

Machinery was initially used for repetitive functions, such as lifting water and grinding grain. With technological advancement more complex machines were slowly developed, such as those invented by Hero of Alexandria (in Egypt) in the 1st century AD and the first half of the second millennium AD.

Robots in antiquity and through the Middle Ages were used primarily for entertainment. However, the 20th century featured a boom in the development of industrial robots. Through the rest of the century, robots changed the structure of society and allowed for safer conditions for labor. In addition, the implementation of advanced robotics in the military and NASA has changed the landscape of national defense and space exploration. Robots have also been influential in the media and profitable for toy manufacturers. Robots began as entertainment for royalty. Inventors such as Al-Jazari and Leonardo Da Vinci worked to build automatons for their benefactors. Al-Jazari built a floating band that resembled humans and performed various songs and drum beats depending on the programming of a series of pegs. Da Vinci created an automation based on the knight’s armor. It could stand and move its arms and neck, as well as open its mouth. Since the invention of the robots, many designs of robots have being made for various functions in the world all the various robots are designed for their specific functions and thus there is specialization in their operation. The robot that is designed in this concept is specialized for industrial use in such places a production, security and home cleaning. (

1.2 Objective of the Study

  1. The aim of this project is to design a robot that is controlled using a wireless means, radio frequency to be precise
  2. The main objective of implementing this project is to practically apply all the electrical and mechanical engineering principles that have being studied.
  3. The project also examines the application principles of embedded systems and how to use these principles to implement expert systems. And f to put the principles of artificial intelligence into real life application.

1.3 Significance of the Study

In today’s modem life, technology has contributed in peoples lives in many ways. Especially robotic systems with artificial intelligence can perform many industrial duties and getting to be increasingly important for some people However, there are those who think that robots have negative effect on people and can bring extreme danger in the future. These points of view must be addressed accordingly It has also been proven, that robotic systems have benefited in many ways. For instance, few robots have helped children with developmental disabilities; others have improved the health status of people with different deficiencies. People who have experienced therapy robots in their lives have commented that robots brought confident in their lives as well as solved problems with their health. The other fact is that in some industrial countries robots are helping children with deficiencies to develop faster arid have influenced positively to their behavior.

1.4 Scope of the Study

The project covers a wide range of areas of applications that include the use of the robot for room cleaning function; the robot can also be used’ in a manufacturing process to transfer materials from one end to another. It also, finds an important application in security surveillance systems where they can be used as a spy machine. They can also be used by the military for security and surveillance. The project based on its design is expected to carry an additional weight of about 1kg and can be controlled at a range of about 10 Meter from the place where the robot is placed and also has the ability to run for a couple of hours.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The design and construction of robot control using radio frequency (RE) module was done considering some factors such as the economy, availability of components, research materials efficiency, capability and durability. Also putting into considerations its advantages and usefulness. The performance is dependent on the operator as well as the efficiency of the signal transmitted by the RF module. Due to the wide use of robots, this particular robot can be used for several purposes such as home security surveillance, domestic purposes as well as toys for children.

5.2 Recommendations

The Radio frequency (RF) module used in this project is 433MHZ which cannot really transmit signals over a longer distance and can also be interfered by neighboring signals. I recommend that a higher frequency should be used for subsequent design.

It can also be improved upon by implementing additional features on it such as security camera for surveillance.
The size can also be reduced so as to make it portable.

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