The Design And Construction Of A Spin Dryer
This work is aimed at designing and fabricating a spin dryer which can be used in drying spent grains after brewing. This will no doubt save considerable human labours and time wastage involved in conventional method of drying the spent grains by spreading on the ground. It also saves as a means of employments for our teaming population. This machine was designed after due consideration of its ease of production, maintenance and servicing.
Chapter one gives account of the introductory background of the project. Chapter two was the literature review of the project. Chapter three was the synthesis of solution under which different alternatives, comparison of alternatives and choice were discussed. In chapter four, effort was made to discuss the Analysis and Theory of design. The details of construction, Maintenance, Procedures and testing and evaluation were discussed, In chapter five. After the testing, it was found to perform effectively and efficiently. Chapter six became the home for Material evaluation, machine and labour cost analysis. Finally was chapter seven, where we based our discussion on the project, possible recommendations and conclusion.
1.1 Identification of Needs
Machine design is the creation of new and better machines and improving the existing ones. A new or better machine is one which is more economical in the overall cost of production, operation and maintenance.
It is on these background that we came out with a design of a machine, which shall help in solving problems of drying spent grains in our breweries.
The major problem facing breweries in the country in how to utilize the spent grains after brewing. Though some breweries use these spent grains as aids by drying and burning them. We hence see this method of recognition as not being economical but wasteful.
There propelled us to designing a new method of drying these spent grains to the required moisture content through the use of a SPIN DRYER. When these spent grains are properly dried, it could be a major constituent in the production of poultry feeds.
With this spin dryer, the unemployed masses could gain jobs by fabricating or buying this machine for drying of spent grains, and recycling it to a useful feed for poultry.
It is worthy to note that the production of a spin dryer is designed in a way that even the unskilled workers could operate it, in fact, we are designing this project as our quota towards the eradication of unemployment and poverty, which this present government is wedging war against.
Moreover, technology could be bought, borrowed or stolen. Our project is a borrowed technology from the western world, which was primarily used for drying of clothes, but we have expanded this scope to deal favourably with drying of spent grains to the desired moisture content.
1.2 The Purpose of Construction
This project is designed and constructed to achieve the following goals:
- To design and construct a spin dryer that will recycle brewery waste (spent grains).
- To design and construct a machine that can dry rapidly trough spinning.
- To design and construct a machine that will have high degree of automatization.
- To design and construct a machine that will take less drying time.
- To design a machine that will be easy in construction but have high efficiency.
- To design and construct a machine that will be cheap to operate and maintain.
- To design and construct a machine that will require less energy.
- To design and construct a machine that could impress on existing design taking into cognisance, areas of need.
1.3 Importance and Specification of the Project
The importance attached to the design of the spin dryers is to achieve a fast spinning and drying system for drying of spent grains.
The machine is design in such a way that it does not require squeezing presses to demoisture the spent grains in the perforated spin tub/basket rather works on the theory of centrifugal motion where the spent grains are spin in the machine away from the centres of rotation at high velocity rate, squeezing the water out.
This machine is design to remove excess water from spent grains in minutes (it spin almost at a rate of 145orpm) by spinning twice the capacity of a normal dryer. It is designed to have a longer life span and efficient in its operation. It is driven by a 4kw (5h.p) motor, as the motor is spinning the basket, the moisture content is drain to the drum. The drum encloses the basket which is covered to prevent the moisture content from splashing. Also a mesh is also provided in the spinning tub to prevent escape of spent grains during spinning.
1.4 Scope and Limitation
The spin dryer is design to complete with existing designs and improve on it, it is also design to be used in chemical industry, breweries for drying of products. It could also be used for small scale drying of spent grains for poultry feeds production.
Despite the scope covered by this machine, there are still some limitations encountered by this project.
These are as follows:
- Unavailability of right/correct materials is one of the factors that hinder the machine from meeting up the standard spin dryer in western countries.
- Another limitation, is the problem of cleaning the spin tub/basket, if holes become jammed by material, the drying effect decrease a lot, therefore continuous cleaning is always demanding.
- It could not be used in drying drugs in pharmacy.
Prior to the design and fabrication of this project, other available alternatives were considered but more proved to be effective and efficient as our spin dryer thus arriving at this model and specification.
The objective of this project was well achieved as the spin dryer was able to dry all the moisture content in the spent grains within a possible time-frame. The dryer was found to be effective, cheap in operation, cost of maintenance is low and affordable.
Having completed the fabrication, of the spin dryer and subsequent performance test carried out successful, the following recommendation were made:.
- That the dryer can used to dry spent through spinning.
- That the dryer can be used to dry clothes by spinning at an extremely rapid speed.
- That further research work on how to remove the grains from the basket quickly after drying be carried out.
- That the equipment cold be use as a reference to anyone embarking on similar project.
- That the department should conduct workshop and sensitization seminar to the public and students on the economic use of the machine.
- That since the equipment was effective and made from locally available materials, it is recommended that the industrial centre limited in IMT should liaise with the designer of the equipment to embark on mass production of this model after a little modification.
- That, the machine should be use for exhibition as a form of enlightening the public on its numerous economic uses.
- That the design of the spin dryer could be modified in future for greater efficiency. We recommend those who would work on this project to particularly tackle the problem of removing the dried spent grains from the basket.
This project has been satisfactorily completed and has met a recommendable high performance for the effective drying of spent grains within a limited time.
Having met this target of functionality, the immediate problems encountered was the scarcity of spent grains for the testing.
We encountered many problems during machining of parts as most of the machines in workshop are not functioning, some that function could hardly give the required precision as output.
The cost of materials were so high as this project was done at the period of price increment of fuel which affects every other commodities.
Nevertheless, we enjoyed the design and fabrication job which we did on the Spin Dryer. Especially since its performance is effective and reliable, therefore it has satisfied its desired purposes, hence it may be generally accepted to be efficient.
However, this project is welcome by so many quarters, as it shall project this country to a greater height of technological emancipation and also create job to the jobless. It shall in no mean word provide enough food to the poultry, which would finally be consumed by man.
Again, it is expected that at higher proficiency and mass production, the cost of production would be reduced.
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