Design And Construction Of A Microcontroller Based Liquified Petroleum Gas Leakage Detector Using GSM Module

Project and Seminar Material for Petroleum Engineering

Design And Construction Of A Microcontroller Based Liquified Petroleum Gas Leakage Detector Using GSM Module


The aim of this project works is to Design and Construct a Microcontroller Based Liquefied Petroleum Gas leakage Detector system using GSM Module, a system capable of detecting if there is gas leakage and sends messages to specified number informing them about the leakage without any time delay.

This design work was achieved by using a gas sensor which monitor and detect if there is a gas leakage, and a microcontroller which is programmed to send the necessary information to a GSM module and the information is sent to a specified number via the GSM module if there is a leakage. The system also has a backup battery to keep it working when there is power failure.

The circuit was constructed and tested by spreading small amounts of LPG near the gas sensor, the system detects the gas and sends a short message, β€œGas leakage at Ugbomro pipeline 10meters from flow station” to a specified mobile number.

Table of Content

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • List of Abbreviations

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of Study
  • 1.2 Problem Statement
  • 1.3 Aim and Objectives
  • 1.4 Scope of Project
  • 1.5 Applications
  • 1.6 Outline of Remaining Chapters

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Analysis of Existing System
  • 2.1.1 Non Technical Systems
  • 2.1.2 Acoustic Methods
  • 2.1.3 Optical Methods
  • 2.1.4 Active Methods
  • 2.1.5 Passive Methods
  • 2.2 Review of Principles

Chapter Three:

Methodology and System Design Analysis

  • 3.1 Methodology
  • 3.2 Design Analysis
  • 3.2.1 Power supply and Charging unit
  • Ac Mains
  • Transformer
  • Bridge Rectifier
  • Capacitor
  • Resistors
  • Relay
  • 3.2.2 Sensing Unit
  • 3.2.3 Controlling Unit
  • 3.2.4 GSM Unit
  • 3.2.5 Software Subsystem
  • 3.2.6 Parts Required
  • 3.3 Mode of Operation

Chapter Four:

Constructions, Testing and Results

  • 4.1 Implementation
  • 4.1.1 Construction Method
  • Power Supply Unit
  • 4.2 Bill of Engineering Measurement / Evaluation
  • 4.3 Testing
  • 4.4 Results and Observations

Chapter Five:

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Problems Encountered
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendixes

List of Figures

  • Figure 3.1: Block diagram of entire project
  • Figure 3.2: Block Diagram of the Entire System
  • Figure 3.3: Block Diagram of Power Supply and Charging Unit
  • Figure 3.4: Circuit representation of a Bridge Rectifier
  • Figure 3.5: Circuit Diagram of Charging Circuit
  • Figure 3.6: Pin configuration of Relay
  • Figure 3.7: Block diagram of Sensing Unit
  • Figure 3.8: Sensitivity characteristics of MQ_6
  • Figure 3.9: Temperature and humidity characteristics of MQ_6
  • Figure 3.10: Basic block diagram of sensing circuit
  • Figure 3.11: Circuit diagram of sensing circuit
  • Figure 3.12: Flow chart of system
  • Figure 3.13: Complete Circuit Diagram of Microcontroller Based LPG leakage Detector Using GSM Module
  • Figure 4.1: Isometric View of Project Casing
  • Figure 4.2: Front View of Project Casing
  • Figure 4.3: Gas output on a serial monitor
  • Figure 4.4: Screenshot of Message sent

List of Tables

  • Table 4.1: Bill of Engineering Measurement/Evaluation
  • Table 4.2: Values of Gas sensor

List of Abbreviations

  • AC – Alternating Current
  • ADC – Analog to digital converter
  • BEDC – Benin Electricity Distribution Company
  • DC – Direct current
  • EEPROM – Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
  • GFCR – Gas filter Correlation Radiometer
  • GPRS – General Packet Radio Service
  • GND – Ground
  • GSM – Global System for Mobile Communication
  • HEX – Hexadecimal
  • IC – Integrated Circuit
  • IDE – Integrated Development Environment
  • IP – Internet Protocol
  • LIDAR – Light detection and Ranging
  • LPG – Liquefied Petroleum Gas
  • PPB – Parts Per Billion
  • PPM – Parts per Million
  • PWM – Pulse Width Modulation
  • PPT – Parts Per Trillion
  • RX – Receiver
  • SIM – Subscriber Identity Module
  • SRAM – Static Random Access Memory
  • SNO2 – Tin dioxide
  • SMS – Short Messaging Service
  • TCP – Transmission Control Protocol

Chapter One


1.1 Background of Study

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) detection is very important because gas is not only an explosive but also acts as asphyxiant. It can therefore cause serious harm to your health, your family health and homes. Liquefied petroleum gas detection was pioneered in the twentieth century by coal miners who used canary birds that would pass out if there were any spike in the amount of methane in the atmosphere. Thankfully, methods of LPG gas detection have moved on from this primitive means of highlighting its presence in the air. There are now a number of methods and devices you can use for LPG gas detection. Let us briefly look at why the gas poses such a threat to human health.
The use of liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in energy sector is rapidly increasing day by day because of its properties like high calorific value, low smoke and less soot. These days LPG is most widely used in automobiles, homes and industries. The LPG or Natural gas is flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases like propane, butane. Due to these properties of LPG or Natural gas the leakage of these gases is a serious concern, as it results into serious threats to living beings. The worldwide natural gas or LPG transportation is done by the cylinders and high pressurized gas pipe lines. In the course of transportation, storage or usage, unwanted leaks arise due to mishandling, ageing, accidents, vandalism. LPG can lead to explosions in coal shafts, the gas trapped in the rock can be released as a result of mining and also fires in landfill sites as a result of a process known as methanogenesis. In the home, LPG is used for cooking. In advanced countries where gas tunnels pass close to sewer pipes, there is also a risk of LPG leaking into your home from sewer pipes.

LPG in the atmosphere is dangerous because our lungs only function normally when the atmospheric concentration of oxygen is more than twenty per cent. If the level falls below this as a result of it being replaced by LPG, it can trigger asphyxiation and if undetected will ultimately lead to death. Let us now turn to the various methods of methane gas detection. LPG leakage has been responsible for several fire outbreaks, in Nigeria, along the Lagos-Ibadan expressway, on the 9th of June 2012, a petrol tanker exploded and left several dead and many wounded. In a survey of burns conducted by (A.O Oladele &J.K Olabanji, 2010) 50% of burns in Nigeria have resulted from leakages resulting from leak in gas storage containers, tankers and petrol containers. LPG spillage has also resulted in severe environmental pollution seepage of spilled fuels into the soil and groundwater and has bad effect on drinking water, aquatic plants and animals, and has lead major oil companies to pay huge settlement fees. To avoid these situations a number of efforts have been devoted to develop a reliable technique for detecting LPG leakage.

A response to the stated problem is to develop a system that warns the user by text messages. This system is very important because it provides real time monitoring of the LPG leakage, and can help in early detection of leakage before it becomes fatal. It will help in reducing the spillages, fire outbreaks that occur from LPG leakage. The advantages of these systems are low cost, low power absorption, low maintenance and suitable for real time data defective of potential risk area. An economic embedded system based gas leakage detector is design in using MQ_6 gas sensor. This project provides a cost effective and high sensitive embedded system based solution for LPG gas leakage detection in automobiles, homes and industries. The system uses MQ_6 gas sensor which detect the gas leakage and alerts the consumer by sending an SMS to configured mobile number with the help of a GSM module. . This chapter discusses the project background, the problem of the project, the objectives of the project, project scope and applications of the project.

1.2 Problem Statement

With the ever increasing demand for LPG as a source of energy for plants, equipments and the ever increasing value of LPG, carelessness, vandalism and accidents has lead to the demand for a system that monitors real time values of LPG content in the atmosphere. In satisfying the demand for monitoring, questions from consumers and stakeholders as to if locations, pipelines, storage areas can be monitored from places far from the control room. A systematic solution to this particular problem is developing a system that analyses the value of LPG in the atmosphere, compares it with the set threshold value, and communicate with the third party (control room or consumer). To accomplish this, a system capable of monitoring liquefied petroleum gas through a gas sensor and sending messages to the specified number without any time delay if there is gas leakage. This research will also include the factors that will affect the system’s performance and ways to mitigate them to ensure maximum accuracy.

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this project is to Design and Construct a Microcontroller Based Liquefied Petroleum Gas Detection system using GSM Module, a system capable of detecting if there is gas leakage and sends messages to specified number informing them about the leakage without any time delay. This design work was achieved by using a gas sensor which monitor and detect if there is a gas leakage, and a microcontroller which is programmed to send the necessary information to a GSM module and the information is send to a specified number. The system also has a backup battery to keep it working when there is power failure.

1.4 Scope of Project

This project work will only send text message to the specified number, as its method of monitoring. The project work will only study and identify conditions affecting the implementation of the project.

1.5 Applications

This project is applicable in following fields: Domestic gas leakage detector, Industrial Combustible gas detector, Portable gas detector, homes, factories, LPG storage, gas cars, hotels etc

1.6 Outline of Remaining Chapters

Below is a brief summary of what the remaining chapters contain:

  • Chapter 2: This chapter cover the analysis of existing system and a brief review of the principles behind the system.
  • Chapter 3: This chapter covers the methodology, design calculation and the mode of operation.
  • Chapter 4: This chapter covers the construction of this work, testing, results and observations.
  • Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation which will contain problems encountered and recommendations.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Gas leakages in households and industries cause risk to life and property. A huge loss has to be incurred for the accident occurred by such leakages. A GSM based gas leak alert system with multiregional sensors has been designed, constructed and tested. The result obtained from the tests carried out shows that the system is capable of sending SMS alerts whenever there is gas concentration at the inputs of the gas sensors. Hence this system can be used in homes and public buildings such as hotels and restaurants.

5.2 Problems Encountered

Along the course of project completion I encountered various problems and obstacles. Not everything that we had planned went smoothly during the project development span. Also i had a limited amount of time for its completion so we were under a certain amount of pressure as well. I had to start from the research phase at the beginning and needed to gain knowledge on all the devices and components that we had intended to use for our project. Other phases of the project included coding, debugging, testing, documentation and implementation and it needed certain time for completion so I really had to manage the limited time available to us and work accordingly to finish the project within the schedule. In the aspect of testing I was restrained to using a lighter and a 5kg cylinder as main sources of leakages, whereas, leakages can occur under several conditions and locations.

Network strength was a mitigating factor in fulfilling the project, as strengths of various networks varied and delivery time of messages varied with network, traffic, and time of the day.

5.3 Recommendations

For future research and improvement modifications can be implemented on the system by including a display to show concentration of gas. The system can be further enhanced by using PIC microcontroller in place of Atmel microcontroller which supports real time application and real time clock to display the exact date and time of gas leakage. The system can also be modified by using a temperature sensor that detects sudden rise in temperature due to other causes which can be hazardous. The temperature sensor can also use to detect the temperature near the high pressure gas pipe, display it and also alert when high temperature is reached. A dialling function and web based function can be included, so messages can be sent to e-mails, websites, and to News and Law enforcing agencies.

For future work, proper research should be made to improve signal strength for the system. Also, research can be made into adding systems that can cut off gas supply in the event of a leakage

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