Design And Construction Of A Headlamp Operated Gate Opening System
This project work deals on the design and implemental of a headlamp operated gate opening system capable of operating a gate/door using the particular headlamp only. This system tends to climate the thresh associated with manual, opening and closing of gates and boosts the security of the entity this electric system is realized in two functional units the transmitter and the receiver. The transmitter is realized using a timed radio frequency transmitter module alongside a laser, diode (the headlamp) the receiver is configured using a tuned, radio frequency receiver module which is used to power an optical light sensor circuit. The output of the sensor is conditioned by Quad -2- input Schmitt trigger NAND gate 7413132 which generates a control logic that is used to bias an NPN bipolar junction transistor. This driver energized an electromagnetic relay that switches/actuates, the prime-mover that pulls the door lover (once the transmitter button is pressed, it transmits an RF signal to the receiver installed at the gate and switches on the laser diode that function as the light source. At the receiving end, the output signal of the TRF receiver supplies power to the optical light detector circuit that energies the relay on receiving visible light from the transmitter. The gate/door opens, and closes on its own even if the light goes off this system, is rebost and rugged and will sell like a German burger if appropriately commercialized.
1.1.1. Background of the Study
Security is everybody’s business all over the world. And this proves more challenging to a third world and terrorist nation like Nigeria. Security of lives and properties can be achieved in wired or wireless mode. Owing to the incessant kidnapping incidents especially in the south east part of Nigeria, there is utmost need to secure any entity (homes/offices/institutions/factories) against such happenstance by coming up with a better technique of security the entrance gate to any entity such that only the users can get access into it. Gate locking techniques abound but each has an associated shortcomings. This menace gave way to carrying out researches on the best way to customize gates (entrances) into any entity. This led me to undertake the project design and implementation of a headlamp operated gate opening system such that only the owners headlamp/valid users headlamp can operate it. This will boost the security of lives and properties.
1.1.2. Problem Statement
Due to the high rate of kidnapping and armed robbery in Nigeria, security of lies and properties as everybody’s concern. Most especially in the south-east region of the country, kidnappers break into people’s compound and abduct them for a ransom. This is due mainly because of poor/no secure entrance into the compound.
In a bid to combat this menace, a highly secured gate opening system should be developed and put in place. This quest motivated me to embark on a project research on design and implementation of a headlamp operated gate opening system such that only the owners headlamp can operate the gate from a distance of nearly 50m. This system will ensure that only one user or selected users can operated the gate. A system of this nature will boost the security of the compound.
1.1.3. Aim and Objectives of the Project/Study
The aim of this project design and implemental of a headlamp operated gate opening system such that only the owner’s head lamp can operate the gate.
The objectives of this project are:
- To develop a prototype of a real life system which can open and close a gate using photo electric effect and radio frequency technology
- To design a system which is not micro-program control.
- To design a system which can be powered using a regulated power supply unit (PSU) synthesized from NEPA.
- To design a module which can be use electromagnetic relay to actuate an AC motor.
1.1.4. Significant of the Project
This project work signified a lot in computer engineering. This project can be used/employed as a security gate in scheduled area like INEC office clubs and gardens.
- It can be used as a security gate in luxury homes.
- It can be used as a security door in strong rooms.
- It can be applied in security gates in military barracks and in prison yard to ensure maximum security.
- If properly modified, it can be used in highly sensitive areas to allow only the authorized users to get access into some areas.
1.1.5. Scopes of the Study
This project work focuses on the design and construction of a headlamp operated gate opening system such that only the owner’s car headlamp can operate the gate. It covers TRF (receiver and transmitter), opto-coupler using LDR, prime mover and other components used in the system. It also x-rays the mode of calculation of the various basic parameters design.
The following are limitations of this project:
- This project work is a prototype of the proposed system due to the ratings of the material used.
- The proposed system uses a headlamp configured with Radio – Frequency (RF) module to operate the gate.
- This prototype does not cater for the specs of the real life system.
- The receiver is installed on the gate where its light sensor can be in point-to-point arrangement with the car headlamp.
- The system works at all times provided it is in good working condition.
- The receiver is only AC powered while the receiver is automotive.
This system cannot work in the dark if the vehicle headlamp is not directly cast on it or faulty.
1.1.7. Project Report Organization
This project report is presented in six chapters to appropriately illustrate the steps involved in its implementation.
Chapter one introduce the design overview objectives and significance of the project. Chapter two is basically the literature review and some theories relevant to the design. Chapter three system design analysis. Chapter four is on the system design analysis while chapter five elaborates on the implementation, testing and result. Finally chapter six summarizes the entire theories and recommendations.
1.1.8. Definition of Terms
1. Opto Coupler:
This is an arrangement of visible light or infrared (IR) and its detector in point-to-point manner for communication. It is also called opto-isolator.
2. Radio Frequency (RF):
This is the rate of oscillation within the range of 3khz – 300 Ghz in the electromagnetic wave spectrum.
3. Control Logic Generator:
This module also called the signal conditioning unit, generates the logic which is needed to bias a transistor driver or to trigger/clock a resettable IC. It is realized with schmit trigger NAND gate.
4. Laser Diode:
This is an improved light emitting diode (LED) which operates based on light amplification by stimulated emission of Radiation (LASER). It consumes less power. It is used as the source of visible light.
5. Induction Kick-Back Diode:
This is a diode that is connected across the terminals (coil) of an inductive load to prevent induction kick-back when it is switched off/de-energized.
This is a phenomenon which occur when a vibrating body sets another body into vibration until both vibrate at the same natural frequency. It is the principle behind RF communication.
It is a rotary actuator that allows for precise control of angular position. It is used/employed in this project to pull the door lever.
This is the appropriate logic needed to turn on a semiconductor device.
5.1 Summary of Achievement
A great deal of design knowledge and modern hardware integration expertise has been impacted in me after carrying out this cutting edge. Through the research and design work, I have been able to appreciate how TRF module can be used to carry out some operations by the principle of electrical resistance. I have been able to appreciate hardware theory which encompasses random logic design and wireless technology. This work has enlightened me on a better way/ technique of securing one’s gate from burglaries and unauthorized access to ensure maximum safety of lives and properties.
I have also learnt that actuators like prime mover can be controlled using digital circuits to energize electromagnetic relay/ solid state relays.
Carrying out this project has given me the opportunity to know more about system testing and integration. It has also consolidated my knowledge in telecommunication, industrial security/surveillance and hardware design.
5.2 Problems Encountered and Solution
In the course of carrying out this project, I encountered many problems, as it is common to all system development but a positive mindset and a cute determination led to instant solutions. The problem and their solutions are given below;
- Insufficient time and fund in carrying out an in depth research from developing the project. But a strategy work plan and accelerated time training was developed as a guide.
- Limited resource material: I expanded my target on material sourcing by visiting a renowned electronic development institute, MEDRTI, in Enugu and PRODA, Enugu.
- Limited/un availability of components like TRF module and prime mover in the local market. This is tackled from the above institute.
Having carried out experiment on the stage of this project, I found the designing and construction very interesting. This project work on design and construction of headlamp operated gate opening system is a dream come through since no other form of headlamp can operate it except the owner’s. Once the switch is pressed while facing the gate, the torchlight shines on the LDR and the gate opens and closes on its own. However, its demerit is energy consumption which can be supplemented by a DC battery and DC motor of suitable torque and features.
The project works off a synthesized power from mains and the result being a headlamp operated gate which responds to one headlamp only.
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