Design And Construction Of Computer Controlled Security Monitoring System

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Security of life and property has been of great concern to people all over the world. Different approaches and devices have been put in place to ensure a high level of security as regards life and property. Governmental bodies have also put different forces in place to reduce the rate of crime in our society. All these and many more are the reasons for the choice of this project, computer controlled security monitoring system.

The project is an electronic circuit designed and constructed to detect motion of any kind of body across certain areas and then trigger an alarm which notifies people around of an intruder. Infrared transmitters and receivers placed at these points detect an intruder and hereby send a signal that drives a transistor and relay sub circuit which electronically switches ON an alarm circuit for an appreciable length of time.

This alarm circuit makes an audible sound during this period which can even be heard from a distance with or without the knowledge of the intruder. Apart from the infrared transmitter and receiver, all other circuit components are found inside a house shaped wooden casing located at one end of a board representing the area to be monitored.

Also added to the project is a computer interface circuit which connects the project to a computer system. With this computer system, the entire circuit can be turned ON or OFF from a remote terminal.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table contents

Chapter One


  • 1.0 Background of the project
  • 1.1 Types and operation of Security monitoring System
  • 1.2 Importance of the project
  • 1.3 Uses of the project

Chapter Two

Literature Review

Chapter Three

Research and Design Methodology

  • 3.0 Research Method
  • 3.1 Block diagram of the system
  • 3.2 Fundamentals of the infrared Transmitter and Receiver

Chapter Four

Construction and Component Used

Chapter Five

  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • Reference

Chapter One


1.0 Background Of The Project

Security Monitoring System is a type of electronic security device that senses movement and usually triggers an alarm. Many types of Home Security Systems can sense motion in total darkness, without an intruder becoming aware that an alarm has been triggered.

Security Monitoring System is an important part of most burglar alarm systems. They help alert security personnel, especially in situations where no obvious break-in has occurred. For instance, if an intruder steals a key to gain access to a protected house or hideout within the house, the intruder’s entrance or presence could go unnoticed. A Security Monitoring System will detect the intruder’s movements as soon as he or she walks or otherwise moves within the area protected by the detector.

Security Monitoring Systems usually protect indoor areas, where conditions can be more closely controlled. Detectors for use in homes usually detect movement in spaces about 11 m × 11 m (35 ft × 35 ft) in area. Detectors for large warehouses can protect areas with dimensions as large as 24 m × 37 m (80 ft × 120 ft). Buildings with valuable or important assets, such as museums, also use Home Security Systems to detect break-ins at vulnerable points. Such points include walls, doors, windows, skylights, and even air ducts. Special Security Monitoring Systems can protect the inside of exhibit cases where items such as diamonds are displayed. Others can be focused to a narrow area of coverage, somewhat like a curtain, that is projected in front of a painting to detect even the slightest touch.

1.1; Types And Operation Of Home Security Systems

Security Monitoring System uses a variety of methods to detect movement. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Infrared detectors sense an obstruction of its transmitting signal when an intruder comes between the line of sight between its transmitter and receiver. Microwave and ultrasonic detectors are active—that is, they send out waves of energy and receive waves reflected back by objects. Any disturbance in the reflected waves caused by a moving object will trigger an alarm.

Video systems optically monitor an area, and movement is registered visually on a monitor. Often, these methods are combined to improve accuracy and reduce chances of a false alarm.

The detector used in this circuit is the infrared type only. It is employed in this circuit because of its reduced cost of purchase and a simple and comprehensive mode of connection and operation. Two transmitters are used here, one at the entrance of the house and another located somewhere beside the building. An obstruction in any of these areas alerts the housekeeper by signaling an alarm circuit located somewhere else.

1.2; Importance Of The Project

This project is very important in homes, offices and even other places where valuables are kept. One of the major importance is its computerized control so that the power of this circuit is controlled from the comfort of an office. When used in homes, the sound of the alarm can even scare an intruder without anybody being around the house. Nevertheless it is very important that this circuit is properly designed and mounted to prevent any form of false alarm.

Modern home security systems make use of several different technologies to reduce false alarms. Infrared detectors can be programmed to ignore the first movement detected, as in when the intruder moves from one detection zone to another, and to sound the alarm only when the movement passes through two or more detection zones within a specified period of time. In this way, an insect landing on the detector’s lens, or a sudden rise in background temperature caused by an activated furnace, is ignored.

1.3; Uses Of The Project

This project can be used everywhere including homes, offices, industries and others where proper security is to be ensured. In a wider view, this project can generally be referred to as motion detector. Apart from its basic use in homes as home security systems, Motion detectors have other various uses.

In manufacturing, electric eye detectors can count products on an assembly line, and perform other tasks that people would find tedious. Some dangerous machinery is equipped with active infrared or electric eye beams of light as a safety device. Should an operator’s hand get dangerously close to the machinery, the beam is broken.

The circuit is interrupted, and the machine shuts down. Garage doors with automatic door openers can be equipped with beams that sense a child under the door and stop the downward movement before the child is injured. Outdoor porch or patio lights fitted with motion detectors can be turned on automatically when motion is detected.

One of the most common and convenient applications of motion detectors is found at modern grocery stores, where doors automatically open as customers enter and leave.

Chapter Five


From this write up, it can now be concluded that the computer controlled home security system is a project which is in line with the latest trend in technology. It is like an efficient 24 hour security man mounted to watch around an area for an intruder. The project if situated at restricted points monitors for any intrusion and alerts security personnel and people around of an intruder. It has eliminated the stress of walking to and fro to watch around the home for an intrusion. If properly connected, it is more reliable than employing a security guard in homes. It is also economical in the sense that the money used to pay home guards can be redirected to other uses.


Apart from the effectiveness of this circuit, it is also recommended that house owners try as much as possible to prevent false alarm. The best approach to eliminate this effect is by employing Dual-technology home security systems. This is probably the most common type of detector used in more sophisticated burglar alarm systems. A dual-technology detector combines a passive infrared device and a microwave device in one small unit. The passive infrared device sees many detection zones and measures the change in background temperature as a target moves across them. At the same time, the detector projects microwaves and measures the Doppler shift when a target moves through the protected space. That is to say that this type of security system employs two different sensors e.g. infrared and microwave, to detect an intruder or motion before an alarm is sounded. For instance, a bird landing on an outside window might trip the microwave device but not the infrared device, so no false alarm would be transmitted.

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