Design And Construction Of Computer Controlled 16 Line 12 Volt Dc Output Interface For Robots

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


The world is changing with the trend in technological development; technology has become the concept in the existence and sustenance of the universe. This trend in technology has made even the most difficult and tedious project to be executed with the ease of mind via the use of electronic devices such as robots.

The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots.

A robot is a computer-controlled machine that is programmed to move, manipulate objects, and accomplish work while interacting with its environment. Robots are able to perform repetitive tasks more quickly, cheaply, and accurately than humans.

This project is a computer controlled 16 lines 12V DC output interface for robots. It functions to direct 12V DC to 16 different terminals any of which can be used to power electric motors driving different parts of a robot. Here, the interface device is connected to the computer and gets information with which it operates the robot.

A program is also designed and running on the computer which creates a user interface between the computer and the operator, such that the whole control of the robot is done from the comfort of a terminal using a computer system.


Chapter One


Introduction

Interface, can be defined as the point at which a connection is made between two elements so that they can work with one another. Before going further, we shall fully base our write up on the computer interface for robots, as it is the case study of this project.

In computing, different types of interfacing occur at different levels, ranging from highly visible user interfaces that enable people to communicate with programs to often invisible, yet necessary, hardware interfaces that connect devices and components inside the computer. User interfaces consist of the graphical design, the commands, prompts, and other devices that enable a user to interact with a program. There are different types and makes of interface but they are all used to convert a program so that a robotic device can be controlled

A robot in its own is a virtual or mechanical artificial agent. In practice, it is usually an electro-mechanical system which, by its appearance or movements, conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own. Stories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to create them have a long history but fully autonomous machines only appeared in the 20th century.

The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Today, commercial and industrial robots are in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or with greater accuracy and reliability than humans. They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans.

Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods. While there is no single correct definition of “robot”, a typical robot will have several or possibly all of the following properties.

  1. It contains an artificial substance.
  2. It can sense its environment, and manipulate or interact with things in it.
  3. It has some ability to make choices based on the environment, often using automatic control or a preprogrammed sequence.
  4. It is programmable.
  5. It moves with one or more axes of rotation or translation.
  6. It makes dexterous coordinated movements.
  7. It moves without direct human intervention.
  8. It appears to have intent or agency.

There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone, and many people have their own. Hence, The Robotics Institute of America (RIA) uses a broader definition: a robot is a “re-programmable multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”.

The RIA subdivides robots into four classes: devices that manipulate objects with manual control, automated devices that manipulate objects with predetermined cycles, programmable and servo-controlled robots with continuous point-to-point trajectories, and robots of this last type which also acquire information from the environment and move intelligently in response.

It is therefore conclusive that a robot can only function if there is a preprogrammed instruction to direct it intent via a computer or any control operated device, manually or automatically, otherwise called the interface.

The computer interface is necessary even as the robot itself, because each cannot do without the other. Basically a robot cannot be connected to the computer directly to function, but through the interface. This interface converts the program into movement of the robot, and gives the artificial device (robot) intent of accomplishing a specific task.

Nevertheless, an interface is made up of programmable integrated circuits (ICs) that understands a series of binary instructions from the computer and thus transmit or convert these sets of binary instruction into an understandable language of the robot.


Chapter Five


Conclusion And Recommendation

Conclusion

In summary, one can simply say that an interface is very vital when connecting and controlling any electronic device from the computer. The interface functions to decode logical information from the computer, process it in the language electronics understands before sending to the electronics device. Interface varies with the type of electronics device they connects to the computer. Invariably, some new technology interfaces are designed to be universal in nature i.e. they can connect more than one type of device to the computer. The project Computer controlled 12v 16 line DC output interfaces for Robots, is a type of interface with sixteen output terminals. Each of these sixteen terminals is represented on a computer program as icons properly labeled for clarity sake. A click on any of the icon directs +12V DC to the corresponding output terminal.

This type of interface is specially made for Simple Robots like the Robotic Arm, Cranes or Lifts. In each of this device, electric motors are properly connected each to carry out a particular process. Each of the electric motors is hereby connected to different output terminals so that they are driven independent of one another.


Recommendation

It is strongly recommended that project of this nature should include a manual operation in case of any emergency. The robot to be controlled should be equipped with manual switches with which it can simply be operated in case of power failure. Also the computer and interface should be equipped with back-up power supply so as to minimize failure. It is very clear that this project is in line with the latest trend in technology advancement so It is hereby recommended that institutions of higher learning create an enabling environment for students to equip themselves on this course.


Design And Construction Of Computer Controlled 16 Line 12 Volt Dc Output Interface For Robots


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