Design And Construction Of A Bedside Refrigerator
Refrigeration processes have developed from the primitive ice cooling system to complex industrial applications. The principle however remain the same, effecting provision of cold space for the preservation, cooling or hardening of substances such as foods, beverages, drugs, vaccines and chemicals. The presence of heat and moisture cause micro-organism to infest the mentioned items therefore, the temperature must be reduced and this is carried out by using refrigerator to withdraw the excess heat and moisture.
This project is introductory in perspective and it also highlights the basic principles and maintenance services. It will enable anybody concerned to know which refrigerant to apply to different types of refrigerating units and what to do whenever a fault occurs. This project can also be referred to at any point in time whenever it is to be improved upon in the nearest future.
Ordinarily, refrigeration stands for the production of a cool confinement with respect to the surroundings. The Americans Society of Refrigerating Engineers (ASRE) defines refrigeration as “the science of providing and maintaining temperature below that of the surroundings atmosphere”. Other definition put refrigeration as “the artificial withdrawal of the heat produced within a space or by substance and provision of a temperature lower than that which would exist under the influence of the surroundings”.
A refrigerator (colloquially fridge ) is also a common household appliance that consist of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump(mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room cooling in a popular food storage techniques in developed countries
In a simple form, refrigeration is a branch of science that deals with heat removal and maintaining of a low temperature in a confined space.
1.1 Historical Background
Since the end of the First World War, the rise in our standard of living has become more and more noticeable than any other time in history. We live in an age of progress as new ideas are constantly being developed and industries springing up everywhere with a view to making life more meaningful for mankind.
One of the greatest technological developments of this remarkable age is the production of ice and preservation of food by mechanical means. It appears that no other single factor has played the more vital role in the growth and attainment of our present day standard of living than as the art of “mechanical refrigeration” either directly or indirectly.(Osore, O.A. 2000)
The modern living environment and fast paced development has led to a change in people lifestyle towards less exercise and unhealthy diet, more people are now willing to go to market and buy one or more time and energy however after they put all the meat, vegetables and fruits into their refrigeration. It is very difficult to remember what foods are fresh or not. Unhealthy eating pattern like this can cause diet related illness later in life if we do not consider eating nutritional food. Seriously such as obesity, this is becoming a major health hazard in the developed countries.
There is also another trend in modern society that wives no longer stay at home as house wives and instead pay attention on their work and spend more time on it rather than focus on cooking. In addition as males cook as often as women this day they also generally face a list of problem’s making dishes on a regular basis while keeping in mind its nutritional values. Moreover, cooking seems not as interesting for these groups and therefore they sometimes prefer fast foods such as Mc Donald’s and KSF rather than cooking at home on their own
The oldest and most well known among refrigerant are ice water and air. In the beginning, the sole purpose was to conserve food. The Chinese were the first to find out that ice increase the lifespan and improves the taste of drinks, for centuries; The North American group called the Eskimos as conserved the food by freezing it inside a block of hard snow called Igloo.(Cambridge Advanced Learner Dictionary 6th edition)
At the beginning of the late century, terms like bacteria, yeast, mould, enzymes and so on were known. It has been discovered that the growth of micro organism is temperature dependant, their growth decline as temperature falls and that growth become very slow at temperature below 10oc.As a consequence of the knowledge of the refrigeration it is now possible to use refrigeration to conserve food stuff with ice which is the end product of refrigeration.
The first mechanical refrigerator for the production of ice was produced around the year 1860. In 1880, the first ammonia compressor and insulated cold store were put into use in the United State of America (USA)
Electricity began to play an important role at the beginning of this century and mechanical refrigeration plant became common in some field like breweries, fishery, ice production, slaughter houses etc. For example, after the Second World War the development of small hermetic refrigeration compressors came out in earnest and refrigerators and freezers began to take their place in the homes, industries and offices. Today, these appliances are regarded as normal household necessities. (Wanitiez, G.W., 1984)
These are countless application for refrigeration system. Examples of areas of application include Cold rooms, Mortuaries etc.
- The above mentioned application involve is served as commercial application.
- Domestic or household applications involve the use of refrigerator process for domestic purpose like a room refrigerator for preservation of food items and generation of ice.
- For industry application like Ice cream Companies, Breweries, Bio-chemical industries, Petrol-chemical industries, and Civil engineering construction.
- Refrigeration is used throughout refinery process and helps to chill oil at various stages to remove wax from the oil.
- It is used for purification of natural gas, liquefaction of air and for separation of its constituents where 15oc temperature is required.
- It helps in treatment of metals by increasing hardness and magnetic properties.
- It is also used in different department in hospitals such as laboratory, pathology, radiology, physical therapy, nursing surgical and recovery rooms.
- It is used for cooling huge concrete dams by air blast cooling or embedding chilled water pipes in the concrete during construction.
- It is also used for freezing of a large area of soil during digging deep foundation helps to prevent percolation of water.
- It can also be used for repairing leaks in pipe
1.2 Research Problem
During our project ‘Research’ we encountered some problems which would have discouraged us, and was about bringing it to our mind to consider another project.
After considering what our project would look like we faced some problems such as:
- What will the project would look like: During our research of how and what our project would look like. We faced stress during the period of putting information together about what it will look like assuming we are to fabricate an ordinary bed side refrigerator. It will have been easier but with what are meant to produce and we had to sit down and think of how it will look like, and what are those things that will make it work out the way we want.
- Materials selection: while we were researching one of the problems which we faced was that we needed to go extra miles to conclude on what materials to be used, how it would be used and other things. Due to the fact that our project is not what we can just meet on Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineer to fabricate for us, we need to cool down our brain together and reason on what material to be used, due to how fragile it will be.
- During the research we had to make several moves in aspect of phone calls and others to know how much different materials cost, which would have been easier if we had to fabricate an ordinary bedside refrigerator we will just ask an Engineer and he will just tell us how much it will cost us
1.3 Justification and Objectives
Refrigerator has been something that so many student has in mind or want to choose as there project topic
This leads us to our objectives which are:
- Fabricating something different from what people might think of.
- Fabricating an engine that is attractive.
- Satisfying the mindset that a refrigerator can be or could come in a glass casing.
- Fabricating a glass refrigerator will learn and increase our reasoning in the area of refrigeration.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This project focuses on a part of engineering which deals with refrigeration and air conditional. The scope of study is written ‘’NIGERIANS’’ precisely between Lagos and Oyo State
- Time: since the time given by the management for the completion of the project is very short and putting in consideration preparation for the final examination
- Scarcity of materials: this is another limitation on its own which we gradually overcome.
- We are not always precise about the prices of materials to be used because it is almost a new invention.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
Evaluating and understanding the refrigeration system was quite and dicey and tasking. Trying to apply the principles of different engineering hypothesis, and lots of research and study was required.
This project was evaluated to meet its desired objectives, and so thorough research was needed and the availability of and necessary equipments, moreover with the available materials fabrication of the unit (refrigeration system) to meet the required specification was achieved.
In conclusion the practical aspect of the project should not be overlooked by any knowledgeable student. Therefore it is very important to learn by starting from the foundation of the theories to the practical aspect of the study.
This unit (the refrigeration system), which is the product of the project, is recommended for domestic uses due to its small size.
The following instructions should be employed and strictly adhered to when using this unit and any other portable refrigerator:
- Hot food should not be stored directly in the refrigerator i.e. food should be allowed to cool down to the room (ambient) temperature before it is been stored in the refrigerator.
- Sharp object must not be used to remove ice from the refrigerator; it should be allowed to defrost.
- A good electric stabilizer should be used to control the electricity that goes into the refrigerator.
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