Design And Construction Of An Automatic Phase Selector For 3-Phase Power Supply
This project work is on the design and construction of automatic phase selector for 3-phase power supply. It provides a means of switching from one phase of AC mains to another in the case of failure in the existing phase; This project has been improved on the existing types of electromechanical device that has being in use over the years.
Hence this has been achieved by the use of operational amplifier, timing circuit and high current relay switches and it is powered by 12V dc power supply.
The aim of this work is to design and construct an Auto Phase Selector introduces an automatic solution to overcome power fluctuation/phase interruption by selecting next most healthy available phase from three phase supply to feed the equipment without any notice of power outage.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- Table Of Content
- 1.1 Background Of The Study
- 1.2 Problem Statement
- 1.3 Objective Of The Project
- 1.4 Significance Of The Project
- 1.5 Limitation Of The Project
- 1.6 Scope Of The Project
- 1.7 Application Of The Project
- 1.8 Methodology
- 1.9 Definition Of Terms
- 1.10 Project Organisation
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Review Of Electrical Phases
- 2.2 Review Of Three-Phase Electric Power
- 2.3 Review Of Three Phase Generation And Distribution
- 2.4 Review Of Three-Wire And Four-Wire Circuits
- 2.5 Review Of Three-Phase Loads
3.0 Research Methodology / Construction
- 3.1 Block Diagram Of The System
- 3.2 Description Of Solar Inverter Units
- 3.3 System Circuit Diagram
- 3.4 Circuit Operation
- 3.5 Three Phase Input To Single Phase Output
- 3.6 Description Of Components Used
- 4.1 Installation Of The Completed Design
- 4.2 Construction Procedure And Testing
- 4.3 Casing And Packaging
- 4.4 Assembling Of Sections
- 4.5 Testing Of System Operation
- 4.6 Problem Encountered
- 4.7 Precautions
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background Of The Study
In Nigeria today the problems of power outage across phases is so rampant thus leading to some sensitive equipment and appliances being redundant, this could sometimes be the cause of one phase going out with respect to the other according to [William D, 2009] .
It may surprise one to note that in an attempt to solve this problems, so many unskilled electricity consumers has in recent past resorted to some crude means of swapping between phases to obtain power. So many souls have been lost in this act. This is an undesirable condition to consumers and the need now arises to design a device that can automatically select among the phases and make power supply available at the consumers terminal [William D, 2009].
However, this can only be possible if one have a three phase met or and there is supply from any of the service line or the entire line, this project known as a three phase automatic phase selector has been constructed with a view of solving the problems stated above. The design and construction was based on the principle of Electro magneto-Dynamism and alignment as demonstrated in the contactor arrangement [Theo. Audel and Co, 1998].
Among other components are the timers miniature-circuit breakers the contactors and indicator bulbs, the ease with which the device is operated is well elaborated to ensure simplicity effort were made to present a stop by step operation of the project. As much as there is no project without limitation and applications, we have as well dedicated a section of this paper to look into it [William D, 2009].
In order to ease the effort of technicians in restoring the devices should there be any malfunction associated.
Faults and how they are cleared is presented, however, there are no user serviceable parts in the device therefore all maintenance should be referred to a qualified electrical personnel [Cotton H, 2011].
1.2 Problem Statement
Power failure / under and over voltage in a country, state or city is highly detrimental to development in public and private industries. The insecurity associated with these problems brings about limitation to power consistent investments, thus hampering the development of industries and multinational ventures. Processes like carrying out surgical operations in hospitals, laboratories which require constant power supply for research, money transactions between banks and more require constant use of uninterrupted power. In other to solve this problem, an automatic changeover switch was invented. This research covers the design and construction of a single phase digital automatic power changeover. It has the capacity to automatically switch power from national grid to generator and vice versa, once there is power failure in any of the two power supplies and at the same time has the capacity of shutting down a generator set once the mains grid is been restored according to Theo. Audel and Co, 1998.
1.3 Objective Of The Project
The objective of this work is to design a device that will overcome power fluctuation phase interruption by selecting next most healthy available phase to feed the equipment.
1.4 Significance Of The Project
Industries require three phases power to run their machinery. Some of them require continuous \ uninterrupted power to maintain their data. Auto phase selector unit for equipment whose supply is single phase. The single phase supply is selected automatically from three phases supply.
Auto Phase Selector introduces an automatic solution to overcome power fluctuation \ phase interruption by selecting next most healthy available phase to feed the equipment [ Fowler, Nick 2011].
1.5 Limitation Of The Project
In every home, office or industries, automatic phase selector plays a vital role, that is, It provides a means of switching from one phase of AC mains to another in the case of failure in the existing phase; This project has been improved on the existing types of electromechanical device that has being in use over the years.
In the course of designing this project, different kinds of problem was notice such as:
- Difficulty in troubleshooting with circuit without the circuit diagram
- Difficulty in connecting the output without the three phases short-circuiting, until a multiplexing circuit was gotten.
- Difficult in wiring because of the strong wiring the project required [ Fowler, Nick 2011].
1.6 Scope Of The Project
This work covers only a three phase automatic phase selector which can only be used for providing a means of switching from one phase of AC mains to another in the case of failure in the existing phase.
1.7 Application Of The Project
This device is used in the following places [Theo. Audel and Co, 1998]
- Worship places
- Workshops or industries
To achieve the aim and objectives of this work, the following are the steps involved:
- Study of the previous work on the project so as to improve it efficiency.
- Draw a block diagram.
- Test for continuity of components and devices,
- Design and calculation for the device was carried out.
- Studying of various component used in circuit.
- Construction of the device is carried out
- Finally, the whole device was cased and final test was carried out.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
Power Outage / Power Failure:
A power outage is the loss of the electrical power network supply to an end user.
is device that automatically transfers power from generator supply to PHCN supply when available and stops the generator without without human intervention
1.10 Project Organisation
The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the work, chapter two presents the literature review of the study, chapter three describes the methods applied, chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Phase selector provides a means of switching from one phase of AC mains to another in the case of failure in the existing phase; it also changeover to generator if there is failure in all the three phases of the AC mains.
In three-phase applications, if low voltage is available in any one or two phases, and you want your equipment to work on normal voltage, this circuit will solve your problem. However, a proper-rating fuse needs to be used in the input lines (R, Y and B) of each phase. The circuit provides correct voltage in the same power supply lines through relays from the other phase where correct voltage is available [G. Mazur and G. Rocks, 2001].
The distribution line supplying your home may be single phase and have only two wires strung between the poles (we will use the overhead power lines as examples because they can be easily seen). However, the distribution line may be made up of 4 lines. What are the others? The other lines carry the currents from two other electrical circuits, making a total of three circuits or phases. The reason why there are only 4 lines is because the 3 phases have a common neutral line (i.e. 3 active lines and 1 common neutral line).
Because the magnitude and direction of the electricity flowing in each of the phases is slightly displaced in time from the electricity flowing in the other phases, the current flowing in the common neutral will be the sum of the neutral currents from the 3 phases. The resultant current in the common neutral is smaller in a 3 phase system than in systems with other numbers of phases. This ability to use a common neutral of relatively small capacity has large economic advantages and is the main reason why 3 phases are used [M.S.Ahmed A.S. Mohammed and O.B. Agubiobo].
3 phase electricity has another advantage. We mentioned above that, in Canada, the voltage between the active and neutral in the single phase, low voltage supply to our homes is 220 volts and that this phase is only one of the phases in the 3 phase system. The voltage between the phases of a 220/220V 3 phase system is 240 volts (in Canada). A 240 volt, 3 phase supply is able to deliver more energy than a 120 volt, single phase supply. 3 phase supplies are normally restricted to large electrical loads, such as large electric motors. Commercial buildings are often wired for three phase power [P. Horowitz and H. Winfield, 1989]. Air conditioners for instance are run on the three phase power while single phase power is typically used for most electrical, electronic and lighting equipment.
A single phase supply must have a neutral, whereas a 3 phase supply does not require a neutral. More complicated reasons deal with fixing the voltage of the single phase supply relative to the ground (because domestic appliances have their metal enclosures connected to ground) and for fault protection purposes. 3 phase, medium voltage, distribution systems and high voltage transmission systems therefore use one wire for each phase and no neutral.
The mains supply in Nigeria fluctuates widely due to overloading, ageing and improper distribution of loads among the three phases of the consumers’ substation transformer.
Appliances such as video cassette player, television as well as those containing compressors like air conditioners, refrigerators, etc could be damaged due to this variation and fluctuation in voltage mains.
The automatic three-phase selector is an electronic circuit that is capable of detecting voltage levels by means of a controller that does some level of comparison before initializing a logic combinational circuit that does some logic combination before initializing an electronic relay switch action. The relay is energize only when the mains voltage is within an accepted predetermined limit, outside of which relay remains dormant .voltage levels below the desired range is ignored. This device is designed to work with a 3-phase input signal. The device functions in the form of an automatic electronic switch, switching between three potentials, with the aim of supplying the highest potential to the load [Theraja, B. L and Theraja, A.K, 2005].
Carrying-out this work by final year student is a right thing and at the right time.
This work was built with quality wiring and contains many connections, I recommend that if failure occur, it should be troubleshoot by a qualify personnel along with the circuits diagram.
This project was built for Educational purposes. If one want to use it for industrial or home applications, I recommend that a hook should be attached to the casing that would allow fixing the system on the wall.
Design And Construction Of An Automatic Phase Selector For 3-Phase Power Supply
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