Design And Construction Of Automatic Change Over Switch With Indicator
This project work deals on the design and construction of an automatic power changeover that will change/transfer control from MAINS to Gen set and can switch ON/OFF the Gen automatically. The system integrates phase selector in MAINS and changeover to Gen. It is designed in several blocks all combined to from one functional unit. A +5v regulated DC power supply unit forms the first block whose output is fed to priority encoder and decoder block.
The output of the BCD – Decimal decoder is used to select the phase in priority through a transistor driver stage and electromagnetic relay that activates contactors. The least prioritized phase is the Gen set which contains a circuitry that automatically starts and stops the Gen set. The system is realized with TTL chips market. LEDs and AC panel lamps are used to indicate the status of the system while a manual switch is used to demonstrate the mode of operation of the system.
Table of Content
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of content
- 1.1. Background of the study
- 1.2. Aims and objectives of the project
- 1.3. Significance of the project
- 1.4. Scope of the project
- 1.5. Limitations of the project
- 1.6. Project report Organization
- 2.1. Historical development of the project
- 2.2. Applications of the project
- 2.3. Components used
Methodology and System Analysis
- 3.1. Design methodology
- 3.2. Top – Down Approach
- 3.3. Bottom – Up Approach
- 3.4. Prototyping
- 3.5. Choice of design approach
- 3.6. Information gathering
- 4.1. Description of the system building blocks
- 4.2. Block diagram development into working circuit
- 4.3. System design specification
- 4.4. Power supply unit
- 4.5. Description of the principle of operation of the system
- 4.6. System design calculation
Implementation, Testing and Result
- 5.1. Implementation
- 5.2. Testing
- 5.3. Result
- 5.4. Project packaging
- 5.5. Bill of Engineering Quantity
Summary and Conclusion
- 6.1. Problems Encountered and Solution
- 6.2. Recommendation
- 6.3. Conclusion
Industrial automation and control has contributed immensely to the high rate of the world’s technological growth. Power control and automation is a part of this field which is applied in virtually anywhere electrical power is used, generated or transmitted. Manual power change-over switches have been in existence and in different forms and shapes. 1959, the advent of microelectronics has paved way to modify the manually operated change-over switches. This project deals with the design and construction of automatic change-over switch with indicator. It eliminates the time and energy spent in operating the manual change – over and starting of Gen. Set. It is fully automated. It can be used in residential houses, offices and most importantly, in factories that required constant power supply. It has so many advantages over the existing ones/types.
1.1. Background of the Study
This project work is embarked upon to eliminate nearly every shortcomings associated with the manually operated type to ensuring that it is fully automated.
This system is realized in several functional blocks all combined to form one functional system. The first block is a 3-phase MAINS regulated dc power supply unit that powers the overall circuit and acts as the input. The output of thin block is fed into a priority encoder (74147) which selects the most prioritized phase at a time. The third block is a BCD – to – DECIMAL Decoder (7442) used to decode the prioritized phase.
The fourth is the driver stage which comprises of NPN transistor that energizes the electromagnetic relay which switches the phase in priority. The Gen set switching section is achieved using the least prioritized phase. This section switches ON the Gen set when all the NEPA phases are low, OFF or faulty. Once the Gen set phase is selected, a switching transistor fires an SCR which conducts large battering current to the ignition coil of the Gen set. Panel indicators are used to show the status of the system.
1.2. Aims and Objectives of the Project
The aims and objectives of this project is to:
- Design and construct an automatic change-over switch with indicator that will switch load from the mains power supply (PHCN) power supply (Generator) with simplicity.
- To introduce a circuitry that will sense power outage and at the same time sense fluctuation in the power supplied to the load at any point time.
1.3 Significance of the Project
This project eliminates the stress, time delay and other drawbacks in manually operated types. The project is modified to display the phase in use at a particular time using a single seven segment Display and its appropriate circuitry.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This project work was carried out primarily with the aim of solving the problem of manual change-over switch when there is need for changing to generator due to power failure from public power supply.
Also, the essence of this project work is to design and construct a 90A, 220V, 50Hz automatic change-over switch which will serve as a standby switch to generator when there is power outage.
1.5 Limitations of the Project
Due to the principal operation of the device, it cannot switch two voltage supply once, during operation. So the power switching of the supplies depends on the state in which the device is, that means it can only be in an on or off state, so as to avoid voltage clashing which will lead to fire outbreak.
1.6 Project Report Organization
Fig 1.1 Project organization block diagram
This project report is presented in six chapters to appropriately illustrate the steps involved in its implementation.
Chapter One introduces the project overview, objectives and its significance. Chapter Two is basically the literature review and some theories relevant to the design. Chapter Three x–rays the methodology and analysis while Chapter Four covers the system design and description. Chapter Five elaborates on the implementation, testing and result. Finally, Chapter Six is about the summary of the entire theories and recommendation.
Summary and Conclusion
6.1 Problems Encountered and Solution
During the project research and Implementation period, I encountered some problems that stand as impediments to rapid accomplishment of the project work. These inherent problems include:
Data acquisition on the hardware components procurement especially the priority encoder. This problem was later solved with a helping hand from a reputable institution of electronic system development in Enugu where I was furnished with Boolean algebra equivalent of the priority encoder, and some information on how to realize some of the system configurations and specifications by the procurement of most of these components used for this project.
Transistor identification and partial contacts: I was able to identify the transistors polarity using modern digital meter with Hfe test socket which gave a directions on how to identify the base, Emitter and collector. Also problems of partial contacts came as result of setting with dry joint which was solved by re-soldering with a very sharp bit and soldering lead with reasonable percentage of flux.
One of the most different problems the confronted me during this project was the design calculations which was solved with the aid of some pertinent design analysis in some lecture notes.
The following recommendations were made after the project research;
- Recommend the use of microcontroller or programmable logic device as the control logic in the subsequent researcher in automatic 3 – phase change over with Gen set switching facility.
- Also recommend the use of LCD/SSD to display the phase and to make it presentable.
- Recommend that entrepreneurs invest in this device owing to it usefulness and reliability.
This project, design and construction of an automatic change- over switch with indicator were a dream come through. It was realized using the available electronic components in the local market. It is a prototype of the Real- life system because of the ratings of the contactors used in the design. The design is rated for 2.2.KVA Gen. Set and appliances and should not be used for a higher rated device.
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