Design And Construction Of 2.5kg Weight Bench Vice
Prototyping or model making is one of the important steps to finalize a product design. Traditional Rapid Prototyping (RP) is commonly referred to as layered manufacturing or solid free form fabrication. It is used for the physical modelling of a new product design directly from computer aided design (CAD) data without the use of any special tooling or significant process engineering. This rapid procedure reduces the lead time required to produce a prototype of a product by eliminating much or all of the process engineering time and tooling requirements. It helps in conceptualization of a design. Designing a rigid, flexible, cost effective and highly durable vise is need of today’s era. Safety should also be taken into consideration while designing the vise. This paper is related to designing and manufacturing of modified bench vise components on rapid prototype machining process. We have designed the conventional and modified bench vise in Pro-E CAD software and manufactured it on Dimension 1200es RPT machine.
A vise (American) or vice (British) is a mechanical device used to secure an object to allow work to be performed on it. Vices have two parallel jaws, one fixed and the other movable, threaded in and out by a screw and lever. Cam vice is one of the clamping devices used to hold the job in rigid condition. Cam vice is operated by eccentric cam mechanism. There is a cam lever. The job can be held tightly in between the jaw. In this, first the job is place in between jaws, and movable jaw is adjusted by adjusting the screw rod to maintain according to the eccentricity of the cam with cam profile. After that, cam lever at the top is operated so that the job is held tightly in the fixture.
This type of fixture is useful for mass production where only similar size of jobs is to be held. It reduces operator’s fatigue and also reduces stetting time and cost of production.
1.1 Description of a Bench Vice
A bench vice is like an extra hand. Its purpose is to hold material steady, allowing you to use both hands to work on the material with other tools.
The bench vise is of the Clamp base Bench design. It is a lightweight, portable vise. It is attached to a table or bench with the mounting clamp. It has rough jaws for holding material with stationary base. Clamp base bench vices are considered most appropriate to hold light materials or in areas where a heavier vice is not available such as laboratories and school workshops.
It consists of a mounting base or body which is secured to the machine table, a stationary jaw against which work piece is located, a movable jaw and screw mechanism consisting of a buttress-threaded spindle and handle. When the spindle is rotated in the clockwise direction using the handle, the jaws move closer thus clamping the workpiece against the stationary jaw. This clamping action holds the part securely while the machining operation takes place. On the other hand, when turned in the anticlockwise direction, the jaws move away thus loosening the grip on the work piece
The stiffness created through the design that pulled the jaw down has the added benefit of pulling the nut and driving the movable jaw up creating a sandwich of vice body, nut and movable jaw. The resulting stiffness and dampening allowed a significantly lighter vice to be offered, allowing for manual lifting and positioning of the vice on a machine table, which contributed to its popularity.
The stationary jaw is cast integral with the vice body. It is a good selection when density and absolute minimum deflection is needed.
This vise hardware is adaptable for installation in a variety of positions, and on different styles of bench tops.
They are ideal for sawing, sanding, plaining, drilling, screwing and soldering.
Types of Bench Vice
There are two types of bench vice that share a common anatomy.
Woodworking vices are usually incorporated into the structure of a woodworking bench, often fabricated from the same type of timber as the bench. The top edge of the jaws is usually flush with the bench top and does not protrude beyond the edge of the bench.
Engineer’s bench vices are also known as metalworking vices and are typically fabricated from iron or steel. These vices are not an integrated part of the workbench, allowing them to be removed and used on any suitable work surface. They are attached so that the jaws of the vice sit above the level of the work surface, at about elbow height, to give more purpose for working on harder materials and slightly protruding beyond the edge of the bench.
For the engineering bench vise, it consists of two jaws, one stationary and one moveable. These are fitted into a frame with a screw apparatus operated by a lever which controls the moveable jaw, allowing the space between the jaws to be expanded or contracted to accommodate different-sized pieces of material.
1.2 Statement of Problem
A problem with known types of vice is that the numerous component parts thereof mean that the clamp is relatively expensive to manufacture. Furthermore, if the clamp is of relatively complex construction it may be similarly complex to operate. In particular, it is inconvenient to have to use both hands in order to clamp an object in the clamp and a one-handed operation would be more desirable. Also, vices tend to be heavy and are normally fixed to a work surface. Research have also shown that the available bench vice are not cost effective, hence these machine tools are not readily available to the engineers, technicians, artisans who are greatly in need of this machine tool for their daily work in the workshop.
Most vises in the workshops are too big and are not amenable to small work pieces holding. Besides, because of their sizes, their materials of construction are big and hence cost much.
When under pressure, most vise designs deflect creating part alignment problem requiring that lifted work pieces be forced down with hammer
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a clamp which alleviates the above-described problems.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To design a bench vise.
- Modify an existing bench vice for small scale workshop production.
- To analyze the design structure of the bench vice.
- To improve the existing design through material and size reduction
- Evaluate the cost of the modified bench vice.
- Alleviate the sufferings of engineers, technicians, artisans who use hand to grip object for cutting, planning, gluing etc.
1.4 Purpose of the Project
From the research, it is expected that the student would be exposed to and learn how to progress from design to actual fabrication of equipment, using conventional system.
1.5 Design and Operation Considerations
In general, to address the work holding needs of a particular machining operation, one needs to consider part size, material, machine speed, feed rate, and the quantity of Parts to be produced. Single part production or low quantity requirements generally make a single vice setup a good choice. The part configuration will point toward either contoured jaws or any number of standard or special jaws. The gripping area for the planned operation must allow for sufficient depth of jaw engagement (bite) to safely allow the planned operation to take place.
Higher quantity lot sizes make multiple vise setups desirable. The work piece size determines the spacing between the vises as well as the vise size itself. Generally, attempts must be made to produce the maximum amount of parts per cycle. Many additional operations by the same operator can then be done simultaneously. The key to freeing the operator is quick clamping and the highest efficiency of the work piece loading cycle. This includes prepping the work area for thorough chip flushing and cleaning.
But in particular, with reference to this project, the vise design is guided by the following considerations;
- Adequate clamping forces
- Quick and ease of clamping
- Simple construction
- Low cost
1.6 Design Conceptualization and Evaluation
Having established the need to design a bench vice, the first step was to decide on the variant of vise to make. Today’s vices range in configuration from relatively simple single station models to very elaborate multiple station designs. Many refinements of the basic vise concept have been made, particularly in the last 50 years to improve precise repeatability, increase part density within the work holder and to automate its operation with pneumatics and hydraulics. Their refinement parallels the advancements in machine tool technology, which was greatly accelerated in the 1960’s with the advent of computer numerical control (CNC) machines.
Double station, multiple station, self-centering, hydraulic, vertical and many other versions were developed out of the basic concept of the original single-station, precision machine vise. Today, there are hundreds of vise models in many sizes with many options including automation, which gives the manufacturer an infinite arsenal of choices.
The size and configuration of the vise is dictated by the work piece shape and the machine it is used on. The cycle time length, if very short, may make using a power operated vise desirable to reduce the time of the clamping cycle. The material to be machined and other production factors also impact the final choice of vise types.
This called for the consideration and analysis of the various known vise variants.
Based on the known vise variants, the following essential features of a vise were identified and used as the basis for analysis.
This project is made with pre planning, that it provides flexibility in operation. This innovation has made the more desirable and economical. This project “DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF BENCH VICE” is designed with the hope that it is very much economical and help full to workshops, small and medium scale industries.
This project helped us to know the periodic steps in completing a project work. Thus we have completed the project successfully.
Design process is achieved by relying on new design methods and with the help of computer software’s like CATIA, UG, Solid works and Pro-E. The need of modifications in actual design is to reduce overall cost of the product, increase the products life, minimizing material waste etc. These are achieved in the modifications of bench vise. In the next phase of the project all designed parts has to be converted into STL format. Using conventional methods, such as casting, forging, machining etc. engineers are limited in the ability to design bench vise by the drastic length of time required to prototype an idea.
C-clamp with base plate is designed which is attached below the base of traditional fixed jaw. The base plate provides the extra strength for clamping the vise to the wooden table. This modified bench vise can be used at any place where required as it is flexible to fix on any table. The rapid prototyping technique is affordable methods for fast product development. The engineering practice uses a lot of computational methods to achieve the design which will fulfill all demands. Anyway, no numerical method is 100% accurate, and it is necessary to manufacture the physical model and to be tested before the product is manufactured in large series.
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