Demonstration Method Of Teaching And Students Academic Performance In Biology

Biology Education Project Material

Demonstration Method Of Teaching And Students Academic Performance In Biology


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine demonstration method of teaching and students academic performance in biology using some selected secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine the extend biology teachers adopt demonstration method during teaching process in secondary schools, ascertain whether the demonstration teaching method helps to improve students engagement and participation during the teaching/learning of biology in secondary schools, find out whether the use of demonstration teaching method enhances students comprehension and retention of biology subject, and ascertain whether demonstration teaching method is very effective in improving students learning outcome and academic achievement in biology. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of biology teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the demonstration teaching method is not often adopted among biology teachers. The result of the findings reveals that there is a statistically significant relationship between demonstration teaching method and students academic achievement in biology. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers should adopt the use of demonstration teaching method in order to enhance students’ academic performance in Biology lessons.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The teaching of biology in Nigerian secondary schools needs to be properly handled. The strategies methods and materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject matter at the secondary school level of our education system is in controvertibly a paramour important issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners.

According to Ekanem (2014), a method is a way of doing something, it is an approach or a stand which a students or a student. The Nigeria certificate in education distance learning system defines a teaching method as a process of selecting, directing, controlling and evaluating the experiences of the child to achieve desirable outcome
Biology as the largest diversity of science has prompted the acquisition of specialized skills and knowledge, enhance some special career opportunities and enable one to live a meaningful life (Coley and Cradler, 2010). Considering its fundamental characteristics and importance, biology is today a standard subject of instruction at all levels of our educational system. It is the only core subject at secondary school certificate examination (S. S. C. E) whose study is very relevant to man’s successful living.

Akindele and Araoye (2019), opined that exposure to biology education offers the learners wide range of relevance to all aspects of life. As an academic subject, biology is quite popular to all level of Nigerian education; it has a larger student’s environment than any other science subject. Biology as a subject must be credited by students before gaining admission into any tertiary instruction to study relevant course like biology/education, medical sciences etc.

Consequently debates about whether demonstration or lecture is the preferred method of teaching is a common feature in academic circles and are divided along disciplinary lines. Students in the applied science generally learn more when demonstration format is used while those in the humanities and some areas of the social science rely more on lecturer method.

Lowman (2017), says that demonstration method is especially stimulating or increases attention and motivation that ultimately enhance high academic performance. Increased arousal and motivation are the essential ingredients for learning and are often more important for retention than intelligence. Based on the method teaching used, learning can be learner centered in order for them to be motivated. This fact is supported by Macarley (2018), who asserted that good instructional method makes lesson come alive and help students to learn better. It is against this background that this study attempts to examine the extent to which demonstration method of teaching could influence secondary school students’ performance in biology.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitudes from the teachers to the learner experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcome.

The mass failure recorded by west African examination certificate (W. A. E. C) 2012 in biology which according to the chief examiners report that out of 1,104,13 students who registered for the examination only 571,006 obtained credit pass in Biology. (Ekong 2014) the reason for this could be ascribed for the fact that there are topics in biology that pose serious problems of comprehension to students these topics cannot be taught effectively without relevant instructional method. On the forgoing, scholars like Meitei and Matora (2014), have utilization on teaching of biology. According to them, we learn and remember 10% of what we hear 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80% of what we experiences directly or practices.

This motivated the researcher to carryout this study in order to investigate whether there is any effect of using demonstration method on student’ academic performance in biology in secondary schools in Onna Local government Area.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

Generally, this study seek to examine demonstration method of teaching and students academic performance in biology. Specific objectives are stated below.

  1. Determine the extend biology teachers adopt demonstration method during teaching process in secondary schools.
  2. Ascertain whether the demonstration teaching method helps to improve students engagement and participation during the teaching/learning of biology in secondary schools.
  3. Find out whether the use of demonstration teaching method enhances students comprehension and retention of biology subject.
  4. Ascertain whether demonstration teaching method is very effective in improving students learning outcome and academic achievement in biology.

1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the extend biology teachers adopt demonstration method during teaching process in secondary schools?
  2. Does demonstration teaching method help to improve students’ engagement and participation during the teaching/learning of biology in secondary schools?
  3. Does demonstration teaching method enhance students comprehension and retention of biology subject?
  4. Is demonstration teaching method is very effective in improving students learning outcome and academic performance in biology?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between demonstration teaching strategy and students academic performance in biology.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between demonstration teaching method and students academic performance in biology.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study is therefore very important in the following ways;

  1. It will help to identify the methods or factors militating against higher academic performance of Secondary School Students in Biology.
  2. It will prepare the students for a responsible life in the society and enable the teacher to adopt the proper method in teaching.
  3. The study will be immense important to the government for planning and implementation of educational policies and programmes.
  4. Teachers of Biology will find the study very useful as it will expose them to principle of effective teaching.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on demonstration methods of teaching and students academic performance in biology. The study will geographically be delimited to secondary schools in Onna is a Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teaching Principles

Are the set rules that guide the teaching profession.

Demonstration Method

An instruction that shows or explains how something works or is done using illustration, picture, chart etc.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on demonstration method of teaching and students academic performance in biology using some selected secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine demonstration method of teaching and students academic performance in biology using some selected secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State as a case study.

The study is was specifically set to determine the extend biology teachers adopt demonstration method during teaching process in secondary schools, ascertain whether the demonstration teaching method helps to improve students engagement and participation during the teaching/learning of biology in secondary schools, find out whether the use of demonstration teaching method enhances students comprehension and retention of biology subject, and ascertain whether demonstration teaching method is very effective in improving students learning outcome and academic achievement in biology.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are biology teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Onna Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion:

  1. The demonstration teaching method is not often adopted among biology teachers.
  2. Demonstration teaching method helps to improve students’ engagement and participation during the teaching/learning of biology in secondary schools.
  3. Demonstration teaching method enhances students comprehension and retention of biology subject.
  4. The use of demonstration teaching method is very effective in improving students learning outcome and academic achievement in biology.
  5. There is a significant relationship between demonstration teaching strategy and students academic performance in biology.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Teachers should adopt the use of demonstration teaching method in order to enhance students’ academic performance in Biology lessons.
  2. Teachers should allow students to repeat the experiment demonstrated to them and correct them where necessary.
  3. Students should endeavour to follow teachers’ instructions during laboratory experiments.

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