Democracy And Good Governance The Nigeria Experience 1990 To Date

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Democracy And Good Governance: The Nigeria Experience 1990 To Date


Chapter One


Introduction

Democracy and good governance as a certain piece of development, is a sensitive fundamental area of concern in the interest of national development considering the Nigeria immediate past political history and linking interest on the part of the citizenry in require on governance issues so as to ensure a stable political administration dispensations, sustenance of representative principle and a attainment of welfare project and police. Hitherto at first federal Republic of Nigeria assumed fully the system of state administration which assumes fully the system of state administration with democracy dated back to may 29th 2001. This makes the second major anniversary of Nigeria Democratic experience on good governance, under the cardinal principle of democratic principle after 16 years of interrupted military rules.

This began in 1983, when the second republic was terminated by the military.

Altogether remained under military autocracy close to 29 years since the era of the military coup in 1966 by6 four majors of the Nigeria government and politics marks the penultimate collapse of the first republic. This trend of authoritarianism government was briefly interrupted between 1979 – 1983, by the second republic. From the perspective of Nwabueze, (1999), Nigeria had passed through some five different phases in has historical evolution, which include,

  1. The era of colonial autocracy and absolute, that is period of formal colonialism fill of tuber 1st 1960 when the country again flag independent.
  2. Emergence of constitutional democracy 1960 – 1966.
  3. The return of the military autocracy and absolutism (neo colonialism) 1988 – 1976.
  4. Restorative of constitutional military autocracy and absolution 1983 – 1989.

As from 1989 when the observation was made, the has added three more phases to her struggles for democratization options, which came to a stage of the glorious “stepping aside” of General Ibrahim Babangida handling over policy and tactile, in 1993. This is the time and Interim National Government (ING) headed by chief Ernest Shonekan. He was made a impose chose by IBB administration and it’s unfortunately suffer legitimacy crisis ambition. Following the declaration made by the high court, to the illegitimate in a protracted law suite instituted on the June 12, 1993.

Presidential election chief M.K.O Abiola. The interim contraption collapse after 82 days. However, the General Abacha stage a coup and dissolve all the existent democratic structure and the country was returned to a full blown military dictatorship, characterized by horrendous human right violation, unprecedented kliptocrazy, hostage taking forever exile and physical elimination of opponent that detained many in that era of 1995-1997, while statue of confusion that general Abacha died on June 8, 199 in a mysterious circumstances (Jimi, 1998:62-73). After the death of general Abacha, general Abdulsalam Abubakar took over his administration seemed to have learnt enormous lessons from the legitimacy crisis suffered by his predecessor while in office. He made it know that he was ready to hand over power to civilian in promote his transition programme in Nigeria.

Eventually, despite all odds, General Abubakar surrendered the political ruler ship to Chief Olusegun Obasanjo on May 29 1999. the second anniversary of democracy was remarkable in the sense that Nigeria were founded by united agency (international organization) for development (unaid), in January 2000, 80% of respondent agreed that “democracy” is the better option in state administration friends of Nigeria within Africa rendered there unparallel support for the continuity and governance by the democracy, among who were Ghana with 74%, Zimbabwe 60% and south Africa with 56%. As a rightly posted by national daily.

Firstly Nigeria was sick of military rule and especially the Nigeria version of it.

The military had demonstrated a most duplicable from of rulership that decline to agree with every value and expectable, greed, obtuse, paradigons in their very arbitraries contempt for rule of law and fundamental human right vocatives, termination of building opposition and gross ignorance in the business the government were only a few of the woes that Nigeria has to bear from several years.

Secondly, the poor handling of the economy meant that there was little for average Nigerians, job opportunity were fast disappearing as company were own and this is turned made them own there staffer salaries and allowances for several months, prison inmates kept dying and crime assumed the status of normal features of the Nigeria society. Where, democracy means better paid job, education, health care, modern amenities, such as durable house, motor transport, pipe borne water, and stable supply of electricity, a better future for children of inborn generation, rather than the aforementioned retrogressive military system (Kunle 1993-87-98). In the views of Nzongola Nta Laja (2001), Nigeria torturers democratization march to the fourth republic one cannot but attempt a prognosis of the possibility of the survival of the nascent democracy and suggest possible recipes. Therefore, the under-study this situation is about time and hence the appropriate opportunity: democracy and good governance.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

This research work content to look into prevailing Government Issue and effect with a view to harmonizing all the odd and defect of military government. However, its will equally provide solution to some military obstacle affecting some areas in the research topic: what are the challenges of democratic government in Nigeria? How democracy dividends can consolidate in Nigeria? Problem facing leadership in the present Nigerians democratic dispensation.


1.3 Objective of the Study

This research work is aim at achieving some objective among which are: to explain the concept of democratic governance, to expatriate the concept and the idea of democratic dividends consolidation, to appraise the concept and practice of democracy in Nigeria, to identify the challenges of sustainable democracy in Nigeria, to proffer recommendation on how sound democratic governances can be developed cum how dividends of democracy can be consolidated in Nigeria.


1.4 Significance of the Study

The scope of this research exercise centers only on Nigeria society on the government covered the period when democracy is jealously upheld, especially 1999-2005. The limiting constrain revolve extensive feed work, data accumulation with cost in hindrance. Thus, an elaborate kind of research of this magnitude will be costly and also suffer both time and energy constraints. More so, other to ensure objective outcome, and free from defeat of purpose, this research must be continuously, meticulously and physical precise carried out.


1.5 Definition of Term

A. Democracy:

The origin of democracy is traceable to ancient Greek. The word ‘demo’ in Greek means people and ‘kratia’ means government. These two words ‘demo’ and ‘kratia’ metamorphosed into the word ‘democracy’.
(Abraham Lincoln) defined democracy as: Government of the people by the people and for the people.

B. Governance:

Is the activity of governing a state (Abraham Lincoln).

C. Democratization:

Is a system of government accountable for its actions in the republic realm by citizens acting directly through the competition and co-operation of their elected representative.

D. Leadership:

Saal An knight (1988), define leadership as a social influence in a social setting, the effect of which is relevant to, or have impact upon, the achievement of group goals.

E. Veto Power:

Is the right or power given to the executive arms of government to refuse or accept in endorsing sign a bill.

F. Military:

This is connected with soldiers or the armed force.

G. Civil War:

A war between groups of people in the same country.


1.6 Organization of the Study

  • Chapter one (1) of the project comprise: Introduction, statement of the study, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of the term, organization of the study and reference.
  • Chapter two (2) comprise: Literature review, what is government, types of government, importance of government, and reference.
  • Chapter three (3) comprises: Research methodology, sample and population of the study, source of data, method of data analysis, and research problem.
  • Chapter four (4) contain: strategies adopted, by government in decision making, problem ascertained with government in decision making, and summary of the chapter.
  • Chapter five (5) comprise of: Summary recommendation and conclusion, summary of finding, recommendation, conclusion and bibliography.

Chapter Five


Summary

As it known that nothing has a beginning without an end. This chapter, being the last of the study aims at reviewing the content of the proceeding chapter then a conclusion can be reached and possible recommendation can be provided. In the introductory chapter of the study, the researcher has really ignited understanding of the problem, aims and objectives significance scope and limitation likewise the research methodology of the study are also stated to add more colours to the to the understanding of the study. The literature review aspect of this study has broadened our knowledge about the study as it examined the prospective of several scholars who have dealt with the study exclusively in some related literature were also reviewed. However, to further understanding the study of chapter which dealt with analysis of the general problems and prospects of good governance, this chapter reveals the major factor that contribute to the successful democratic and also the effort of good governance in the country. This research has also included in his analysis in the chapter, the various ways and means of consolidating democracy.


Recommendation

Priority areas that need to be addressed to strengthen the practice of good governance as a catalyst to democratic in Nigeria are follows:

a. Capital Building for Good Governance.

The capacity of political close and the civil society need to be strengthened in several governance related areas including the following:

I. Civil Society:

Increased civil education training of relevant personnel, equipping and finding support for public awareness and related programmed and promotion of strong net working among themselves and collaboration with governance.

II. Government Official and Institution:

Political and economic governance in a democratic setting, conflict resolution and post conflict reconstruction, upholding the rule of law and transparency and accountability. This issue of disaster presentation preparedness and relief relevant.

b. Promotion Human Rights And Gender Issues.

Development should be people centered and human right of the center of such and approach with Nigeria’s past history it is critical that a continued monitoring of human rights and gender into the natural policy capacity of the government ant the civil society needs to be built up in these areas.

c. Public Sector Rearms.

Given the importance of the public sector to the entire development process, an in view of current state and in efficiencies of the specific sector as well as across broad. Emphasis should be building on transparent, accountable and effective public sectors those levels of government in Nigeria.

d. Strengthening Electoral Mechanism.

The close affinity between electoral and the building to stable democratic institution has been noted above, technical assistances is needed to strengthen INEC and the electoral mechanism. Training of the key staff, civil education on electoral matters, provisions of relevant material and adequate finding and substance of their independence in law and practice are some of the key issues.

e. Strengthen of Media Capacity.

For the media to play a mere effective role in governance there should be a strong campaign to reveal all anti-press legislation still in force, a support for current efforts to enact new national legislation on the freedom of information and the media training and provision of materials for media practitioners and key government managers of public information is also highly recommended.


Democracy And Good Governance The Nigeria Experience 1990 To Date


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