Delimitations Of Effective Teaching Of Agricultural Science In Senior Secondary Schools In Delta State

Agricultural Education Project and Seminar Material

Delimitations Of Effective Teaching Of Agricultural Science In Senior Secondary Schools In Delta State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the delimitations of effective teaching of agricultural science using selected senior secondary schools in Delta state as case study. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 83 responses were validated from the survey. Data collected was analysed using four Likert scale of (SA), (A), (SD) and (D). The findings of the study revealed that the relevance of teaching agricultural science in secondary schools include; it provides the youth with sound knowledge of the basic principles and techniques of agriculture and the motivation with which they can translate this knowledge into real improvement in agricultural productivity, it provides aspirant farmers with the knowledge of rural community survival, it helps the rural students develop an understanding of the inter-relationships of urban and rural life, it provide training to aspirant (students) farmers in agricultural occupations such as livestock, horticulture, food storage and processing as well as insurance and financing, and it produces adequate trained personnel involved in extension services for farmers; More so, the findings disclosed the delimitations of effective teaching of agricultural science which include; Lack of qualified agricultural teachers, poor remuneration, irregular payment of salaries, fringe benefits and lack of teachers motivation, non-participation in the organization’s decision-making process, non-availability of school equipment, inadequate instructional supervision, socio-economic background of students, the syllabus are not oriented towards the need of the society, lack of proper curriculum development, and poor method of instruction. Lastly, the findings of this study revealed the means through which those challenges can be resolved, among them include; agricultural Science teachers should devote equal time for theory and practical lessons, agricultural teachers should be given in-service training how to assess practical activities efficiently, adequate funding through diversify sources from government to ensure provision of materials and equipment and teachers welfare should be recognized as a top priority to help motivate them. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered; adequate funding through diversify sources from federal government and state government, Agricultural Science should be separated from general education, administration and supervision of Agricultural Science should be entrusted to experienced agricultural educators, Agricultural Science should be clearly defined to reflect its status as a vocational subject so that educators would not misconceive it for general education subject, government should create a training environment in schools as obtained in the world of work, private or community schools with little or no facilities for vocational training should be merged, methodology should accommodate various methods like practical demonstration, assignment, problem solving approach, excursion and the discovery method and teachers should be motivated through prompt payment of salary, promotions, in-service training, research grant etc.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Before and after the discovery of petroleum, Nigeria was mostly an agricultural based country. Agriculture is often the basis of the economy, according to Maguire (2018).

Ikot (2015), connoted that agriculture is likely the most significant single discovery that enabled man to live in a settled society that expanded progressively in complexity from families to villages to cities to modern nations.

Similarly, Darma (2017) pinpointed that modern agriculture enabled the shift of agriculture from nomadic existence. To that end, the importance of agriculture in a growing country like Nigeria cannot be overstated. Agriculture, as a source of food, foreign exchange earnings, and labor employment, should be prioritized in the preservation of a healthy economy. As a result, Agricultural Science is essential and should be treated more seriously in order to eliminate ignorance about practical agriculture and foster enthusiasm in farming.

At this point, it is important to note that a lack of adequate Agricultural Science in schools, as well as a shortage of skilled agricultural teachers, has resulted in a decrease in student interest and performance in agriculture. Furthermore, Uchegbu 1993, as cited in Darma 2017, correctly observed that agricultural teachers’ poor remuneration situation, with irregular payment of salaries and fringe benefits, as well as a lack of teachers’ motivation, contributed to their low performance.

However, Ayandele (2005), as quoted in Azikiwe (2017), said that the lack of school equipment, poor instructional supervision, students’ socioeconomic backgrounds, and other factors impede the successful performance of agriculture instructors in secondary school.

Furthermore, Olaitan (2019) stated that agriculture is not taught in the majority of Nigerian schools, and even in those that do, there is no genuine effort to supply suitably competent instructors and required infrastructure. He observed that the majority of the pupils are uninterested in agriculture and lack the necessary skills. The curriculum is not geared toward societal demands. The social and teaching standards of many farm science professors are not to be envied.
Teachers of agricultural science, according to Mbanuju (1998), as cited in Olaitan (2019), make the topic uninteresting.

They utilize the farm as a punishment ground for pupils, giving children the impression that the school farm is primarily used for punishment. This does a lot to destroy the pupils’ interest, especially in practical work. As a consequence, even if they lack aptitude for such disciplines as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, and Additional Mathematics, pupils feel quite happy to be connected with them. As a consequence, they dismiss disciplines such as agricultural science. As a result, instructors find it difficult to have a significant influence on pupils both in the classroom and on the school farm during practical sessions.

In view of the aforementioned comments and observations, the object of this study is to research the delimitation and challenges hindering successful agricultural science teaching in secondary schools in Delta state, Nigeria, with the objective of laying a firm foundation for the advancement of agriculture education in Nigeria..


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Agriculture has long been regarded as one of the most vital aspects of human life. It has tremendously expanded man’s understanding of his surroundings, as well as his fundamental necessities for food, shelter, and clothes. Nigeria, being a growing nation in desperate need of meeting its population’s food demand, need competent and meaningful agricultural instruction in its schools (Olaitan (2019).

Despite government attempts to increase the level of teaching agricultural science in secondary schools, student performance currently does not forecast the potential of reaching agriculture expectations in terms of satisfying the population’s food demands. This however can be traced to ineffective teaching and learning of the subject in majorly secondary schools. Poor provision of instructional materials and equipment, poor teachers welfare and motivation among other numerous factors are all challenges encountered by agricultural teachers in Nigeria. As a consequence, Agricultural Science in the nation is ineffective.

As a result, it is necessary to expose the problems of teaching agricultural science and to search internally for a better means of establishing a strong foundation for successful Agricultural Science in secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general aim of this study is to examine the delimitations of effective teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools in Delta state.

Therefore, the specific objectives include;

  1. Identify the relevance of teaching agricultural science in secondary schools in Delta state.
  2. Identify the delimitations militating against the effective teaching of agricultural science in Delta state.
  3. Proffer possible solutions to the identified challenges

1.4 Research Questions

This study will be guided by the following questions:

  1. What is the relevance of teaching agriculture in secondary schools in Delta state?
  2. What are the constraints militating against the effective teaching of agricultural science in Delta state?
  3. What are the means through which those challenges can be resolved?

1.5 Hypothesis

The hypothesis that was tested in this study is:

  • There is no significant difference between the perceptions of teachers and students on the delimitations the effective teaching of agricultural science in junior secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to agricultural science teachers as it will enlighten them on the problems of teaching agricultural science, and guide them in making adjustments in their methods and techniques of teaching agriculture science. This research will also help teachers and students understand agriculture science education and develop a positive attitude toward it.The study will apprise the government of the importance of agricultural development of the nation and the need to ensure adequate availability of facilities needed for effective teaching and of agriculture.

Finally, this study will serve as a source of information for teachers, students and researchers who may likely carry out a study on a topic synonymous with the one of this study.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study covers on the delimitations of effective teaching and learning by teachers and students of agricultural science in Junior Secondary Schools with specific focus on selected local government in Delta State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Agriculture:

Agriculture is define as a science that deals with the application of scientific methods and methodologies to improve agricultural practices, including the harvesting, processing, and distribution of food, fibre, and pharmaceutical products. Agriculture is also referred to the science that deals with the cultivation of the soil, growing of crops and raising of livestock’s. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for human consumption with the aim of improving production techniques, controlling pests, minimizing the effects of drought, the selective breeding of plants and animals as well as enhancing agricultural development and innovations.

Teaching:

Teaching refers to a face to face encounters between two or more persons, one of whom (teacher) intends to effect certain behavioural changes in the other participants (learners/students). Teaching is one of the instruments of education and is a special function which is to impart understanding and skill.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the delimitations of effective teaching of agricultural science using selected junior secondary schools in Delta state as case study. The chapter consists of summary and finding, conclusion, recommendation, limitation and suggestions for further study.


5.2 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine the delimitations of effective teaching of agricultural science using selected junior secondary schools in Delta state as case study. The study specifically was aimed at identifying the relevance of teaching agricultural science in secondary schools in Delta state; identifying the constraints militating against the effective teaching of agricultural science in Delta state and proffer possible solutions to the identified challenges. The study adopted the Mitzel (1969) model.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants using purposive technique to choose the sample size in the study. A total of 83 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are teachers of the selected secondary schools in the study area. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using four Likert scale of Strongly Agree(SA), Agree(A), Strongly Disagree(SD) and Disagree(D) with frequency tables and percentage.


5.3 Conclusion

Having critically examined the research questions, tested the hypothesis, and the research findings, the following conclusion was made based on the information gathered:

  1. The relevance of teaching agriculture in secondary schools include;
    1. It provides the youth with sound knowledge of the basic principles and techniques of agriculture and the motivation with which they can translate this knowledge into real improvement in agricultural productivity.
    2. It provides aspirant farmers with the knowledge of rural community survival.
    3. It helps the rural students develop an understanding of the inter-relationships of urban and rural life.
    4. It provide training to aspirant (students) farmers in agricultural occupations such as livestock, horticulture, food storage and processing as well as insurance and financing.
    5. It produces adequate trained personnel involved in extension services for farmers.
  2. Among many other, the major constrains militating against the effective teaching of agricultural science incorporate; lack of qualified agricultural teachers, poor Remuneration, irregular payment of salaries, fringe benefits and lack of teachers motivation, non-participation in the organization’s decision-making process, non-availability of school equipment, inadequate instructional supervision, socio-economic background of students, the syllabus are not oriented towards the need of the society, lack of proper curriculum development, and poor method of instruction.
  3. The possible solutions suitable to resolve the identified challenges include;
    1. Agricultural Science teachers should devote equal time for theory and practical lessons.
    2. Agricultural teachers should be given in-service training how to assess practical activities efficiently.
    3. Adequate funding through diversify sources from government to ensure provision of materials and equipment.
    4. Teachers welfare should be recognized as a top priority to help motivate them.

5.4 Recommendation

In respect to the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered;

  1. Adequate funding through diversify sources from federal government and state government.
  2. Agricultural Science should be separated from general education.
  3. Administration and supervision of Agricultural Science should be entrusted to experienced agricultural educators.
  4. Agricultural Science should be clearly defined to reflect its status as a vocational subject so that educators would not misconceive it for general education subject.
  5. Government should create a training environment in schools as obtained in the world of work.
  6. Private or community schools with little or no facilities for vocational training should be merged.
  7. Methodology should accommodate various methods like practical demonstration, assignment, problem solving approach, excursion and the discovery method.
  8. Teachers should be motivated through prompt payment of salary, promotions, in-service training, research grant etc.

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