Declining Prison Facilities As Impediment To The Rehabilitation Of Offenders

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Declining Prison Facilities As Impediment To The Rehabilitation Of Offenders


Abstract


The study analysed Declining Prison Facilities as impediment to the rehabilitation of offenders, Agodi Gate Ibadan. A descriptive research method and design was adopted for the study in the process of analysis, the research discovered that Nigeria prison is congested which constitute on impediment to effective prison administration.The objectives of the study are as follows: To ascertain the extent to which prison congestion in Nigeria poses a serious constraints on prison administration, to find out the extent funding has affected on the administration of Nigeria prison and to verify the extent to which lack of rehabilitation and correctional equipment in Nigeria Prisons constitutes a constraint to rehabilitation of inmates, and also the prevention of crime in Nigeria.The study recommended that he act should emphasis more on rehabilitation of inmates and not only punishment. Such rehabilitation should include both the convicted and awaiting trial men (ATM), and reduce the over dependence of prison on government. Furthermore, there should be others sources of fund to the prison administration not only depending on government, NGOs etc. should come up with a well-articulated plan for better service delivery.


Table of Contents


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Definitions of Operational Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.0.1 Alternative Incarceration: The Reintegration Model
  • 2.1 Conceptual Explanation
  • 2.1.1 The Notion of Crime
  • 2.1.2 The Nigerian Prison and Prisoners
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Crime Prevention and Control in Nigeria
  • 2.4 The Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Crime Prevention and Control by the Police in Nigeria

Chapter Three:

Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Research method
  • 3.3 Area of the study
  • 3.4 The population of the study
  • 3.5 Sources of data
  • 3.6 Sample size determination and sampling techniques
  • 3.7 Instrument of data collection

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Interpretation of Findings

  • 4.1 Result and Findings
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five:

Summary of Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Crime is any act or behaviour which violates the norms (normative behaving) of a society. This would mean that a criminal should be seen as any person who breaks any of the rules or norm of behaviour by which society is governed and has the possibility of affecting the wellbeing of other members of the society. (Roth 2006) Therefore, the importance of crime prevention and control, maintenance of law and order to the development and growth of a society, both in the physical and economic sense, cannot be over emphasized.

Roth (2006) is of the opinion that ‘it is only a mind that is secured and at peace that can rationally address the issues of procreation, economic development and societal growth. A disturbed mind is a restless and distraught personality. It is therefore imperative to have peace and order in the society to assure its growth and development. The role of law enforcement in the maintenance of peace and order as well as crime prevention in the society is a foregone conclusion.

Every man by nature is selfish and self-centered, in most cases; he needs the presence of the state institution of law enforcement to be able to act right. By its establishment philosophy, the Nigerian Prisons Service is an institution meant to administer penal treatment to adult offenders. It is an important and indispensable institution in the bid to reduce crime in the society. On the basis of imprisonment policy, the Nigerian Prisons Service was established to manage criminals in prison yards. These constitutional functions empower the prison operatives to:

  • Keep convicted offenders (prisoners) in safe custody
  • Keep awaiting trial inmates in custody, until law courts demand their production
  • Punish offenders as prescribed by the law courts
  • Reform the convicted prisoners
  • Rehabilitate and re-integrate prisoners who have completed the sentences in the prison. (Hannah, 2012)

Inferring from the above, the main aim of establishing the prison institution in all parts of the world including Nigeria is to provide a rehabilitation and correctional facility for those who have violated the rules and regulations of their society. However, the extent to which this maxim is true in practice has been a subject of controversy. Instances abound where the prisons have become a training ground for criminals instead of rehabilitation home in Nigeria (Obioha 2011).

Prison Administration is a complex dynamics of various divisions or units that provide a range of services in the management of prisons. Such services may include policy formulation and implementation, finance and budgeting, personnel management and operations and such others. (Aina, 2010). Prison Administration is further executed by other institutions of government who are co-players in ensuring a holistic management of the prison system. Such institutions include the police which are saddled with the responsibility of arresting, investigating, interrogating and prosecuting an offender. However, the worry about the manifestation that Nigerian Prisons Service has not lived up to expectation in terms of impacting positively on the lives and vocations of inmates has raised several questions that have not yet been completely addressed on the system’s functions and existence. Invariably, all of these issues cannot be isolated from the dynamics involved in prison administration in Nigeria which is characterized by the system failure identified with the key players such as the police and the judiciary, which are saddled with collaborative roles in achieving effective prison administration.

With these key players generally being indicted of corruption and the Nigeria police specifically being alleged of ineptitude especially as regards investigations of cases, the judiciary also being accused of perennial delay in criminal trials as well as the Nigeria Prisons Service itself being undermined by shortcomings such as undue political interference, inadequate facilities, irregular and inadequate training for staff and inmates, in fact, the effectiveness of the Nigerian prison system might have been eroded (Emeka, 2011).

The drive to re-position the Nigerian Prisons Service for an improved service delivery in concert with other key players involved in prison administration in Nigeria has therefore necessitated this study. It is against this background that this study is considered pertinent in order to inquire into prison administration and crime prevention in Nigeria with a particular reference to Nigerian Prison Service, Agodi Gate Ibadan.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The prison system is an integral component of the whole process of criminal justice system and crime prevention. The main aim of establishing the prison institution in all parts of the world including Nigeria is to provide a rehabilitation and correctional facility for those who have violated the rules and regulations of their society. However, the extent to which this maxim is true in practice has been a subject of controversy. Instances abound where the prisons have become a training ground for criminals instead of rehabilitation home in Nigeria (Obioha 2011)

Issues have been raised on security of lives and property of the citizens, safe custody of inmates, prison congestion, unavailability of detainees in court resulting in adjournment of cases, unhygienic and dilapidated prison environment sometimes resulting in epidemics ill treatment of inmates resulting in recidivism, low level of training on meaningful undertakings resulting into failure in rehabilitation of prisoners and proper integration into the society after prison terms (Ogunwumiju, 2013).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

Generally, this study examines prison administration and crime prevention in Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are to;

  1. Examine the objectives of establishing the Nigerian Prisons Service
  2. Identify the relationship between effective prison administration and reduction in the occurrence of criminal activities in Nigeria
  3. Investigate the challenges confronting the administration of Nigerian Prisons and its role in crime prevention in Nigeria
  4. Suggest recommendations towards improving the effectiveness of prison administration in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How does prison congestion pose serious constraint to effective prison administration in Nigeria?
  2. Does inadequate funding constitute an impediment to effective prison administration in Nigeria?
  3. Has the extant law on prison in Nigeria impacted negatively on prison administration in Nigeria?
  4. Does the inadequacy of correctional and rehabilitative equipment have constrained efforts at correction and rehabilitation of prison inmates, as well as crime prevention?

1.5 Statement of Hypotheses

Hypothesis One
  • Ho: Effective prison administration is not one of the viable instruments of crime control and prevention in Nigeria
  • H1: Effective prison administration is one of the viable instruments of crime control and prevention in Nigeria
Hypothesis Two
  • H0: There is no meaningful relationship between effective prison administration and reduction in the rate of criminal act in Nigerian societies
  • H1: There is meaningful relationship between effective prison administration and reduction in the rate of criminal act in Nigerian societies
Hypothesis Three
  • H0: Inadequate facilities and poor training are not factors seriously affecting effective prison administration and rehabilitation of prisoners in Nigeria.
  • H1: Inadequate facilities and poor training are factors seriously affecting effective prison administration and rehabilitation of prisoners in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is highly significant in its intense concern with respect to the current rate of crime within the Nigerian societies. The study intends to reveal the nexus between effective prison administration and crime prevention in Nigeria. Hence, the study will endeavour to probe into the challenges facing the Nigerian prison service and possible solutions would be suggested.

Also, the study will advance the frontiers of knowledge in the area of profound impact which the prison system exerts on the security of lives and properties of the citizens and reformation of the prisoners as orchestrated not only by the Nigerian Prisons Service but also other collaborative institutions.

The study will be beneficial to security agencies especially the officers of `Nigerian prison service, the general readers and future researchers who may be interested in this kind of research study


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study covers the prison administration and crime prevention in Nigeria with its scope limited to Nigerian Prison Service, Agodi Gate Ibadan. Therefore, the investigation of this study will be restricted to the members of staff of the Nigerian Prison Service, Agodi Gate Ibadan.


1.8 Definitions of Operational Terms

Prison:

Prison refers to any officially designated place usually fortified for the purpose of confinement of persons considered guilty of offence in order to punish, correct and rehabilitate such persons.

Administration:

Administration implies the process of coming together of two or more people to achieve a predetermined objective. It is a process of getting things done through people.

Crime:

Crime is any act or behaviour which violates the norms (normative behaving) of a society.

Crime Prevention:

Crime prevention is a process or measure put in place by the government in order to reduce the occurrence of criminal behaviour in the society

Criminal:

A criminal is a person who has been convicted to have violated the rules, laws or norms of the society


Chapter Five


Summary of Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Summary

The study analysed Declining Prison Facilities as impediment to the rehabilitation of offenders, Agodi Gate Ibadan. A descriptive research method and design was adopted for the study in the process of analysis, the research discovered that Nigeria prison is congested which constitute on impediment to effective prison administration. The prison is cramped with about seventy percent (70%) above her capacity. More so, the system of funding the prison was also observed to constitute on impediment to effective prison administration. This is predicated on the fact that the resources made available annually for the administration of prison is not sufficient due to continuous increase in number prison inmates without sufficient facilities to accommodate them.

The study further provides part of the problem of prison administration in Nigeria as the existence of certain flaws in the prison act of 1972 which lay no emphasis on rehabilitation and training of inmate. This situation have resulted to increase in number of recidivist in Nigeria prison hence, the prison of the moment has no functional rehabilitation centre.


5.2 Recommendations

From the result of the finding, the following recommendations were made;

  1. The federal government should amend and pass into law prison act. Government should make a policy for the rehabilitation of prisoners instead of concentrating only on punishments.
  2. The act should emphasis more on rehabilitation of inmates and not only punishment. Such rehabilitation should include both the convicted and awaiting trial men (ATM), and reduce the over dependence of prison on government.
  3. There should be others sources of fund to the prison administration not only depending on government, NGOs etc. should come up with a well-articulated plan for better service delivery.

5.3 Conclusion

The researcher concluded as follows: that the Nigeria prison is congested as a result of infrastructural decay occasional by poor funding of the Nigeria prison and this has impacted negatively on the prison inmates, coupled with the assured flaws that exist in the prison act. This has resulted to increasing number of recidivist in Nigeria prison.The role of the police as enshrined in the Constitution of the Federal republic of Nigeria, as it concerns crime prevention and control cannot be over-emphasized. The development of a society largely depends on the rate of crime. If the crime rate is high, it could scare away or discourage investors. Also the safety of lives and property is an issue of priority in any given society. Consequently, the government needs to increase its funding for the police so that modern and adequate equipment to combat crime could be acquired. However, such funds are to be properly monitored to avoid diversion into private pockets and also rid the Nigeria police of its corrupt elements. It is also important that the police must be motivated through regular promotion, good salary, and decent accommodation. There is need to strengthen the family institution as well as develop a welfare programme for the children from broken homes, as well as unemployed youths as this will prevent them from being recruited into criminal gangs. If crime is to be reduced to the barest minimum, the government must take pro-active measures towards poverty alleviation. Poverty readily offers a breeding and fertile ground for crime. As such, any effort made towards poverty alleviation automatically translates to effort made towards crime prevention and control in the society. The police cannot fight crime alone. Intelligence gathering is a veritable tool for crime prevention and control. This is why the members of the public must wake up to assist the police in its functions. The public should be ready at all times to give necessary information to the police. This is because, crime is a challenge that all and sundry must confront headlong for a stable and safe society.


Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Declining Prison Facilities As Impediment To The Rehabilitation Of Offenders

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.