Customer Perceived Value And Customers Satisfaction In Travel Agency In Nigeria
This study is on customer perceived values and customers satisfaction in travel agency in Nigeria. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Rivers state aviation, Rivers state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made HRMs, supervisors, flight instructors and receptionists were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1 Background of the Study
It is believed that the goal of every organization is to meet the needs and the requirements of its stakeholders. Meeting the needs and the requirements of the stakeholders will not only ensure the survival of the organization but also flourish it. Customer is presumed to be one of the most important stakeholders in any organization because without him, organizations are not likely to succeed. Travel trade in Nigeria contributes 6.8% of Nigeria’s GDP, INR 2,178.1 Billion to the country’s GDP, USD 18.13 Billion in foreign exchange earnings, 3.6 % growth is foreign tourists from May 2015, 39.5 million jobs, 7.7% of its total employment. Total travel agents in Nigeria: 20,000 (approx) doing monthly business.
The success of airlines depends majorly on the ability to identify customers’ wants and needs, and factor it in the quality service that would meet customers’ satisfaction. Air transport is the transportation of passengers and cargo by aircraft and helicopters.
Thus, it is a transport mode for the movement or carriage by air of persons or goods using airplanes and helicopters (Don- Beliner 1996). The airline industry is a major player in the world economy as it contributes significantly to the leisure/tourism and is a key element of international business (Tiernan, Rhodes & Waguespack, 2008), with global airline revenues exceeding $12.9 billion as at 2006 (IATA, 2007).
The aviation industry in Nigeria is a major player in the economy owing to its substantial contribution to ease of movement within the country especially in the face infrastructural decay (poor and insecure road transport system) in the recent years. Nigerian Airways was established in October, 1958 as a joint venture between the Nigerian government’s lines and the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) while the Nigerian Airways took over the operation of domestic flights from the disbanded West African Airways Corporation (WAAC) which had been operating commercial aircraft within the country since 1946 (Filani, 1983). In 1963, the Nigerian Federal Government bought out the other shareholders and the Nigerian government became the sole-owner of Nigeria Airways. The airline has monopoly for providing domestic air services in Nigeria and also the national flag carrier for international services. According to Filani (1983), in 1976, within Nigeria several charter companies joined the Nigeria Airways to operate additional flight in small aircraft from Lagos to the main economic centres in the Southern and Northern parts of the country. The Nigerian government realizing the role of air transport in the Nation’s development made significant attempts to develop the country’s aviation industry. The most massive was the 1975-1980 airport development programme in which the Murtala Mohammed airport complex was about complex was about N240 million (Filani, 1983). Six other airports in Kano, Ilorin, Kaduna, Sokoto, Port Harcourt and Maiduguri were developed to accommodate large aircrafts. Apart from these airports development programme the Federal government also intensifies manpower development in the aviation industry. But due to the efficiency of the sector, the aviation industry was liberalized to allow private owners to compete favourable in the business.
Port Harcourt International Airport (IATA: PHC, ICAO: DNPO) is an international airport located in Omagwa, a suburb of Port Harcourt city in Rivers State, Nigeria. The airport consists of a single terminal with separate facilities for international and domestic flights. In 2009, the airport served 1,081,587 passengers, making it the third busiest airport in Nigeria.
This lead increase of number of operators and perceived frequent flyers in the industry which does the perceived services value and quality often reflect the customers’ level of satisfaction with the airline and show intention to repatronize the service (FMA, 2012).
According to Nigerian Airport Authority (FMA, 2012), from visiting family and friends to shipping high value products, 8.3 million passengers and 181,000 tonnes of freight travelled to, from and within Nigeria; domestically, more than 66,800 flights make over 75 million seats available to passengers, destined to 18 airports as at years 2011 and 2012.
Since success of airlines in Nigeria will be its ability to identify customers’ wants and needs, gather them up and then come up with quality service that would meet customers’ satisfaction it important that researches on assessing the determinant of choice of airline should be continuous as this will assist all the stakeholders survive in their strive to supress competition by attempting to bridge the existing gap between customers’ service expectations and the quality of service offered by them to fly within Nigeria.
In Nigeria, the value of consumer benefit varies because of how often they fly, and the value a passenger attach to additional flight will in general fall. This is consonance to the law of diminishing returns which states that affirming that to continue after a certain level of performance has been reached, will result in a decline in effectiveness (Case, Karl & Fair Ray (1999).
1.2 Statement of the Study
Since, the success of airlines depends majorly on customers’ whereby, without them an organization seize to exist, it is therefore, importance to identify there wants and needs, and factor it in the quality of service to be rendered to the customers. A major problem to the aviation industry in general (Nigeria) is the cost of flight, the route that are available and the durability of the aircraft in terms of the life span of the aircraft in use.
Hence, this study examines if the Nigerian Passengers that fly within Nigeria get the value of the expected fare paid for the flight, fully satisfied with the services delivered or the air fee exceeds the perceived value gotten from the flight and with the less value or satisfaction gotten through air transport.
- The quality of service the customers perceived most time are not the quality of service the customer gets at the end.
- Quality of service do not match to the cost of service.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is therefore to:
- Investigate the service delivery of Rivers state Aviation industry if its meets the customers satisfactory and value
- To identify customer’s perceived value and needs, his satisfactory level.
- Examine how the passengers’ socio-economic status affects choice of airline.
- Analyze the impact of perceived value on customer satisfaction in Nigeria Aviation Industry.
- Analyze the impact of service quality on customer satisfaction in Nigeria Aviation Industry.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
Consequently the proposed hypothesis of the study is;
- H01: There is no significant relationship between service quality and satisfaction of air travelers Nigeria.
H1: There is significant relationship between service quality and satisfaction of air travelers Nigeria.
- H02: There is no significant relationship between perceived value and air travelers’ satisfaction in Nigerian.
H2: There is significant relationship between perceived value and air travelers’ satisfaction in Nigeria.
1.5 Significance of the Study
Quality is increasingly becoming a strategic issue in the Western world (Bergman and Klefsjo, 2003). One of the main reasons for the successes of Japanese industry in the 1970s and 1980s was that the Japanese realized early that quality concept should emanate from the requirements and expectations of the customers (Bergman and Klefsjo, 2003). This perception played a vital role in bringing about success (Bergman and Klefsjo, 2003). Today service quality has become more vital than ever before because service providers have realized that they have to provide customer-perceived value, if they want to stay in business. Therefore, this research work will help the management of the Rivers state airline to manage the aviation industries to meet up with the customer’s perceived value and satisfaction. If the management adhere to this research guideline, then they will excel in the business environment.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research work will be concentrated in the area of business satisfactory using customer’s perceived value and needs, also this study will be based on airline industries using the Rivers state aviation for the study as a case study or reference point. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Aviation is the practical aspect or art of aeronautics, being the design, development, production, operation and use of aircraft, especially heavier than air aircraft.
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight.
Customer satisfaction is a marketing term that measures how products or services supplied by a company meet or surpass a customer’s expectation.
Consumer’s perceived the worth that a product or service has in the mind of the consumer. The consumer’s perceived value of a good or service affects the price that he or she is willing to pay for it. For the most part, consumers are unaware of the true cost of production for the products they buy.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain customer perceived values and customer’s satisfaction in travel agency in Nigeria. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of customer perceived values and customer’s satisfaction in travel agency in Nigeria
This study was on customer perceived values and customer’s satisfaction in travel agency in Nigeria. Five objectives were raised which included: Investigate the service delivery of Rivers state Aviation industry if its meets the customers satisfactory and value, to identify customer’s perceived value and needs, his satisfactory level, examine how the passengers’ socio-economic status affects choice of airline, analyze the impact of perceived value on customer satisfaction in Nigeria Aviation Industry, analyze the impact of service quality on customer satisfaction in Nigeria Aviation Industry. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Rivers state aviation, Rivers state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made HRMs, supervisors, flight instructors and receptionists were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
From the evidence obtained from domestic air passengers in Nigeria, we find that perceived service quality positively influences both passenger satisfaction and loyalty towards the airlines. The study also suggests that passengers satisfaction significantly influences loyalty formation in the Nigerian airline industry and partially mediates the relationship between service quality and customer loyalty. In general, the global airline business operates under exceptionally tough environments (such as: rising operating costs, declining demand arising economic depression, intense competition among others). Hence, business managers should recognize that improving service quality is crucial for gaining and sustaining business growth and competitiveness. Evidence from this study indicates that service quality stimulates passenger satisfaction, which encourages their return to the same service provider in a subsequent transaction. Therefore, the capability of an airline to offer superior service quality by understanding customer expectations facilitates business growth and survival in airline industry. In particular, improving service quality to understand and match customer expectations influences capability to deliver relatively error-free service that pleases customers, therefore having the tendency to retain customers’ patronage, enlarge market share and, by extension, constitute a means to enhance business profitability.
In improving service quality to understand and match customer expectations influences capability to deliver relatively error-free service that pleases customers, therefore having the tendency to retain customers’ patronage, enlarge market share and, by extension, constitute a means to enhance business profitability. Simply stated, to need to build and enhance customer satisfaction, airline operators must offer quality service that meets and exceeds passenger expectation, so as to enhance customer loyalty
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