Cultivation Of Mushroom Using Corn Cob, Sawdust And The Mixture Of Both Substrates

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

Cultivation Of Mushroom Using Corn Cob, Sawdust And The Mixture Of Both Substrates


Abstract


Mushrooms are edible fungi belonging to class Basidiomycetes. Most species of mushroom are popular and widely cultivated throughout the world owing to their simple and low cost production technology and higher biological efficiency. This study on cultivation of mushroom using different substrates adopted a culture method in which the mushroom was cultured on sawdust, corn cob and the mixture of both substrates. The parameter measured were subjected to one way analysis of variance and the experimental result was found to be significant at P<0.05% level of significance. Result gotten showed that all the substrates used supports the growth of Ganodermalucidum (mushroom), but sawdust was found to perform better in supporting the growth of the fungi. Hence, it is concluded from the study that mushroom grows better in sawdust and it’s a good substrate for the cultivation of mushroom especially Ganodermalucidum. It is recommended in this study that sawdust substrate should be used for the cultivation of mushroom in order to obtain adequate growth especially for Ganodermalucidum.


Chapter One


Introduction

Mushrooms are one kind of edible fungi belonging to class Basidiomycetes. Mushroom are edible having excellent flavour and taste. Most species of mushroom are popular and widely cultivated throughout the world owing to their simple and low cost production technology and higher biological efficiency(Mane,2007).Cultivation of mushroom has increased tremendously throughout the world because of their abilities to grow at a wide range of temperature and harvested throughout the year [Amin,2007].Mushroom cultivation techniques which use methods such as submerged culture to obtain mycelium have been described during the last 15 to 20 years while solid culture is used to obtain fruiting body or basidiocarp on several types of substrate and by monitoring important growth parameters including temperature, relative humidity and pH (Gurung et al., 2012; Erkel, 2009). The organic materials which can be digested by mushroom mycelia and support growth, development and fruiting of mushrooms are called substrate (Kadhila-Muandingi and Mubiana, 2013). Hence, without good substrates, satisfactory yields of mushrooms will not be obtained. According to Erkel (2009) most medicinal mushrooms of the basic substrate is hardwood sawdust (75 to 80%) from deciduous trees like maple and elm, supplemented with wheat bran, although rice bran, rice husks, coconut fiber, peanut hulls, corn, sorghum, sawdust, sugarcane bagasse and rice bran, ground corn and ground sorghum were found to be good supplements for substrate

The terms mushroom and toadstool go back centuries and were never precisely defined, nor was there consensus on application. The term “toadstool” was often, but not exclusively, applied to poisonous mushrooms or to those that have the classic umbrella-like cap-and-stem form. Between 1400 and 1600 AD, the terms tadstoles, frogstooles, frogge stoles, tadstooles, tode stoles, toodys hatte, paddockstool, puddockstool, paddocstol, toadstoole, and paddockstooles sometimes were used synonymously with mushrom, mushrum, muscheron, mousheroms, mussheron, or musserouns (Ramsbottom.,1954).

The word has apparent analogies in Dutch padde(n)stoel (toad-stool/chair, mushroom) and German Krötenschwamm (toad-fungus, alt. word for panther cap). In German folklore and old fairy tales, toads are often depicted sitting on toadstool mushrooms and catching, with their tongues, the flies that are said to be drawn to the Fliegenpilz, a German name for the toadstool, meaning “flies’ mushroom”. This is how the mushroom got another of its names, Krötenstuhl (a less-used German name for the mushroom), literally translating to “toad-stool”(David.,2008).

The term “mushroom” and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss (mousse). The toadstool’s connection to toads may be direct, in reference to some species of poisonous toad, or may just be a case of phonosemantic matching from the German word. However, delineation between edible and poisonous fungi is not clear-cut, so a “mushroom” may be edible, poisonous, or unpalatable. The term “toadstool” is nowadays used in storytelling when referring to poisonous or suspect mushrooms. The classic example of a toadstool is Amanitamuscaria.

According to David.,(2008) and Leschyn & Wade.,( 2012]. They described “fungus-hunter” as being contemptible and detailed the larger demographic’s attitude toward mushrooms as abnormal, worthless, or inexplicable Fungophobia spread to the United States and Australia, where it was inherited from England. The underlying cause of a cultural fungaphobia may also be related to the exaggerated importance placed on the few deadly and poisonous mushrooms found in the region of that culture (Hunter & Jessica.,2012). In these regions, mushrooms were also sometimes regarded as magic or satanic, their fruiting bodies appearing quickly overnight from underground. Most of the mushroom has being serving as source of food and medicine for years and this has led to the need of cultivation them in other to meet this need. Due to this reason the study will be examining the cultivation of mushroom on different substrates such as on corn cob, saw dust and the mixture of the two substrates.

This study is significant in that it will provide basic information on the types of substrate which are used in the cultivation of mushroom and the same time highlight the best substrate used in the cultivation of mushroom. It will also provide various techniques used in cultivating mushroom and the morphological, physiological, nutritional values and various uses of mushroom. This study is also significant since it will serve as a source of information for other fellow researcher who would want to research into the same topics add to the exist knowledge. The study will not only add to the exist knowledge but will also provide various reasons which makes mushroom a good source of food to be consumed by people(Hunter & Jessica.,2012).

The aim of this study is to find the most suitable substrate effective for the cultivation of mushroom. Other objectives are to ascertain the techniques employed in growing mushroom on suitable medium used for mushroom cultivation and to ascertain the morphology, physiology, environmental condition, nutritional values and uses of mushroom.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

Discussion of Findings

Findings made from the study showed that Mycelia growth of Ganodermalucidum is usually noticed and well pronounced in corn cob after 4 days of cultivation while growth of mycelia is less pronounced in Saw dust and the mixture of saw dust and corn cob. But after some weeks mycelia growth are more pronounced in sawdust and still less in mixture substrate. The result also indicated that sawdust support the germination and growth of Gandermalucidum and the rate of germination and growth in sawdust substrate is significant at p<0.05%. This means that saw dust is a good substrate for cultivating Ganodermalucidum. The growth of Ganodermalucidum in sawdust is due to the fact that sawdust provides the needed required nutrient from the germination and growth of the fungi.

Finding from the study also agreed to what Kadhila-Muandingi and Mubiana (2013) obtained in their study. They obtained a faster mycelia growth and invasion of mushroom in corn cob substrate than in sawdust substrate.
Mycelia growth of Ganodermalucidum in corn cob substrates was observed and noticed to be rapid for the first week after which mycelia growth becomes slow. This rapid and slow growth of Ganodermalucidum mycelia may be due to the gradual depletion of nutrient from the substrates over during the experiment. This finding agrees to what Onyango et al, (2011) observed and noted in his study, according to him Corn cobs and wheat straw contain higher cellulose, crude proteins and moisture content which helps in rapid growth of mushroom and a slow growth rate when the high cellulose and crude protein is being depleted.

The substrates also supported the growth of Ganodermalucidum (Muchroom) and growth level of the fungi mycelia was noticed to be significant at <0.05. Result of the study also indicates that the growth of Ganodermalucidum is also supported by the mixture of the two substrates(corn cob and sawdust) but the growth of the fungi in this substrate is very poor as compared to the growth noticed in the other substrates( sawdust and corn cob).
Finding also indicated that the growth of Ganodermalucidum performs best in sawdust than the two other substrates as indicated by LSD0.05 of sawdust as compared to LSD0.05 of corn cob and the mixture of the substrate. This means that the sawdust is best for the cultivation of mushroom especially Ganodermalucidum. This finding disagreed to what Veena and Pandey (2010) reported. According to their report the growth and yield of Ganodermalucidum on both saw dust and corn cobs obtained in their study was very low.


Conclusion

Mushroom over the years have being playing substantial role in the history of man as it serves as source of food, income and medicinal purpose for man. This has made the fungi to be a vital resources to humanity and for such are now being cultivated on different substrates in other to meet this demand. Study has shown that growing mushroom on substrates such as sawdust will lead to adequate growth in the fungi in other to meet the need of man. Hence, from this study it can be concluded that sawdust is the best substrate for growing mushroom especially Ganodermalucidum.


Recommendation

It is evident from the study that mushrooms can be cultivated manually using different substrates. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that sawdust substrate should be used for the cultivation of mushroom in order to obtain adequate growth especially for Ganodermalucidum.


Suggestion for Further studies

Fellow researchers should investigate other effective forms substrate which support adequate growth and yield mushroom.


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