A Cross Sectional Study Of Teacher Attitude Towards The Use Of ICT In Teaching Chemistry In Senior Secondary School In Gwale Local Government Area

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

A Cross Sectional Study Of Teacher Attitude Towards The Use Of ICT In Teaching Chemistry In Senior Secondary School In Gwale Local Government Area


Abstract


This study was carried out a cross sectional study of teacher attitude towards the use of ICT in teaching chemistry in senior secondary school in Gwale local government area. The study was carried out to examine the benefits of information and communication (ICT) to the teachers and the students in secondary schools, and examine the factors that hinder the use of information and communication technology in secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of computer teachers in the selected senior secondary school in Gwale local government area. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals that the attitude of ICT differ among teachers based on experience. The study also revealed that the attitude of ICT differ among teachers with different educational qualifications. Therefore, it is recommended that the schools through ministry of education should seek technical partnership and collaborative funding with international and national organizations to provide and maintain more ICT facilities such as computers (hardware and software console), internet facilities, laptops, projectors, interactive boards, printing accessories in secondary schools and ensure these facilities are gainfully utilized by setting up monitoring teams to pay unscheduled visits to schools periodically. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The world is in an era of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its technological impacts across human endeavours to solve societal problems can not be over- emphasized. The present global age is the consequence of the introduction and application of ICT towards realization of set objectives. The significance of ICT in education include computational analysis, creation of databank, storage and management of educational data, communication (internet), instructional material (audio-visual), easy access to information, enhancement of innovation and invention; other areas of ICT’s relevancies are clinical analysis, financial institution, aviation industry, weather analysis to mention but a few. (Arthur, 2002) stressed the importance of ICT in national development and human endeavours including agriculture, education, security, economy, communication, health sectors. (Adesina, 2000 in Arthur, 2002) asserted that ICT is the propelling force driving global competition, awareness communication and interaction at the speed which has never been imagined before. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has changed the way people think and do business with their clients. Significantly, ICT has indeed made activities in education to run smoothly towards achieving the stated educational objectives.Information is the life wire of today’s organisations/institutions, especially business, industry and education. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is the technologies that support activities involving the creation, storage and communication of information together with their related methods, management and application. ICT is a term generally used to cover the harnessing of electronic technology needs for the administrative, managerial and educational functions of an institution. “Teacher education institutions may either assume a leadership role in the transformation of education or be left behind in the swirl of rapid technological change” (UNESCO, 2002).

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have the potential to enhance access, quality, and effectiveness in education in general and to enable the development of more and better teachers in Nigeria in particular. As ICT hardware becomes available to an increasing number of schools, more attention needs to be given to the capacity building of the key transformers in this process, namely, teachers.

ICTs are one of the major contemporary factors shaping the global economy and producing rapid changes in society. They have fundamentally changed the way people learn, communicate, and associate. They can transform the nature of education – where and how learning takes place and the roles of students and teachers in the learning process. Education in the some Nigerian regions faces a number of problems. These problems include the shortage of qualified teachers, utilization of instructional materials, selection of teaching methods, very large student populations, high drop-out rates of students and teachers, and weak curricula. All of these negative aspects result in poor delivery of education. The education crisis is worsened by the increasing poverty level, a brain drain in the teaching community, budgetary constraints, poor communication, and inadequate infrastructure. While societies in the region undergo rapid changes as a result of increased access to information, the majority of the school-going youth continue to undergo traditional rote learning. Very little is done to take advantage of the wealth of information available on the Internet.

Whereas the processing of information to build knowledge is one of the essential literacy skills vital for the workforce in the 21st century, it is often overlooked in current educational practices.

In order to function in the new world economy, students and their teachers have to learn to navigate large amounts of information, to analyse and make decisions, and to master new knowledge and to accomplish complex tasks collaboratively. Overloaded with information, one key outcome of any learning experience should be for learners to critically challenge the material collected in order to decide whether it can be considered useful input in any educational activity. This is the basis for the construction of knowledge. The use of ICTs as part of the learning process can be subdivided into three different forms: as object, aspect, or medium (Plomp, Brummelhuis, & Pelgrum, 1997).

  1. As object, one refers to learning about ICTs as specific courses such as ‘computer education.’ Learners familiarise themselves with hardware and software including packages such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and others. The aim is computer literacy.
  2. As aspect, one refers to applications of ICTs in education similar to what obtains in industry. The use of ICTs in education, such as in computer-aided design and computer- aided manufacturing, are examples.
  3. ICTs are considered as a medium whenever they are used to support teaching and learning.

The use of ICT as a medium is rare in some parts of the country where the availability of resources is a major obstacle to the widespread integration of ICTs in education. Technology is not new to education. However, contemporary computer technologies, such as the Internet, allow new types of teaching and learning experiences to flourish. Many new technologies are interactive, making it easier to create environments in which students can learn by doing, receive feedback, and continually refine their understanding and build new knowledge. Access to the Internet gives unprecedented opportunities in terms of the availability of research material and information in general. This availability of research material and information happens to both inspire and threaten teachers. The computer equipment in the few fortunate schools that have them tends to be underused and lacks appropriate education content.

Commonly, the computer equipment is used as objects in computer lessons. A few other subject teachers undertake courses in software packages but are unable to integrate or meaningfully insert this knowledge in their daily teaching work. A worrying tendency is that boys are the targets rather than girls when investments in ICT hardware and training are made (Kinyanjui, 2002). If not taken seriously, this will increase gender disparities in education. In the education sector, curriculum review efforts are geared towards modernisation, including the incorporation of important ICT components. However, even the reviewed curricula tend to treat ICT as a subject rather than as an application tool that can be used in all other subjects, in teaching and learning. Teacher education institutions and programmes have the critical role to provide the necessary leadership in adapting pre-service and in-service teacher education to deal with the current demands of society and economy. They need to model the new pedagogies and tools for learning with the aim of enhancing the teaching-learning process. Moreover, teacher education institutions and programmes must also give guidance in determining how the new technologies can best be used in the context of the culture, needs, and economic conditions of their county.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

For more than a decade in Nigeria, the federal and state governments through the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training with the inputs of educational stakeholders and other partners has been conceptualizing and implementing various ICT policies and initiatives related to help students and teachers in the use of ICT in learning and teaching. With such initiatives in place, one would expect a fully-fledged integration of ICT in Nigerian schools today. However, in spite of the availability of ICT tools in various secondary schools in Nigeria, previous studies conducted show that few teachers and students are using ICT as an effective and efficient teaching and learning tool. Very interestingly, many studies stress that in many schools ICTs are mostly confined to administration, and personal use. Although different ICT programmes and Governmental policies have already been put in place to integrate ICT in the educational sector, there are still challenges and gaps in the implementation of these policies. According to Swarts & Washira (2010) the challenges can be categorized into access, equity, quality and ICT relevance. This points to the fact that, careful investigation of the current teaching and learning practices, readiness, skills, competence, knowledge and attitude of various educational stakeholders, specifically on student’s perspectives regarding the use of ICTs in schools is needed so as to understand the pedagogical value of ICT in secondary schools in Nigeria today.


1.3 Research Objectives

The main objective of this study is to investigate teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT in teaching chemistry in senior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State. Specifically, the objectives are:

  1. To examine if the attitude of ICT differ between male and female teachers
  2. To evaluate if the attitude of ICT differ among teachers based on experience
  3. To determine if the attitude of ICT differ among teachers with different educational qualifications

1.4 Research Questions

The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:

  1. Does the attitude of ICT differ between male and female teachers?
  2. Does the attitude of ICT differ among teachers based on experience?
  3. Does the attitude of ICT differ among teachers with different educational qualifications?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The followings are the research hypotheses to be tested in this study:

  • H0: There is no significant relationship between teachers attitude and the use of ICT in teaching Chemistry
  • Hi: There is a significant relationship between teachers attitude and the use of ICT in teaching Chemistry

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study informs educational stakeholders such as parents, government, curriculum developers, and school administrators on teachers’ attitudes towards ICT usage in teaching process, the extent of ICT integration into the teaching process and factors influencing the rate of ICT integration into the teaching process in secondary schools. If, as Eccles (1987) has argued, ‘task value’ beliefs are central to explaining the nature of students and teachers’ attitudes teaching and learning particular subjects, then this study helps in identifying those tasks which are viewed positively, such factors as teachers’ attitudes towards ICT and the former’s effects on the extent of integration in the teaching process. This study therefore documents findings on teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT in teaching chemistry in senior secondary school in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study was limited to the views of secondary school teachers of Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State in studying their attitudes towards the use of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching process. Furthermore, the study was confined to ICT variables such as: use of computers, overhead projector for PowerPoint presentation, and use of internet to process data for the teaching process. Therefore, five senior secondary schools in Gwale Local Government Area shall be selected for this study.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

There are two main limitations to this study. First, the sample was limited to chemistry teachers and chemistry students. This limits the generalization of the research findings to other populations. Second, the survey information is self-reported data. Therefore, the results might be affected by the teachers’ social desirability to provide desired information rather than accurate information.


1.9 Definition of Terms

The following terms were used during the cause of the study.

Computer Attitudes:

An attitude is “the predisposition of an individual to evaluate some symbol or object or aspect of his world in a favourable or unfavourable manner.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT):

Mary and Cox (2007) defined ICT as electronic and computerized devices associated with human interactive materials that enable the user to use them for wider range of service delivery and in addition to personal use. ICT involves the use of electronic devices such as web portals, internet, inters witch, telnet and telecommunication for sending and receiving messages and used for tax administration.

Technology Integration:

The practice of using new and emerging technology in ways that is both curriculum-based and future-oriented to create meaningful learning experiences and to increase technology literacy.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on a cross sectional study of teacher attitude towards the use of ict in teaching chemistry in senior secondary school in gwale local government area. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on a cross sectional study of teacher attitude towards the use of ict in teaching chemistry in senior secondary school in gwale local government area. The study is was specifically carried out to examine the benefits of information and communication (ICT) to the teachers and the students in secondary schools, and examine the factors that hinder the use of information and communication technology in secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were computer teachers in the selected senior secondary school in Gwale local government area.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The attitude of ICT does not differ between male and female teachers.
  2. The attitude of ICT differ among teachers based on experience.
  3. The attitude of ICT differ among teachers with different educational qualifications.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. For the effective use of ICTs in teaching and learning, teachers need to be competent enough to use ICT-based materials. To this effect, in-service training courses for ICTs use should be offered to teachers who need to learn how to utilise ICT tools/resources, how to create or select internet-based activities, how to plan ICTs assisted lessons and how to integrate ICT resources into actual classroom teaching. Through such training, teachers would understand the pedagogical and technical aspects of ICT, and teachers would be able to engage in their professional development and, as a result, their interest and willingness to use ICT based materials and activities in the classroom could be well responded and constructively put into practice.
  2. The schools through ministry of education should seek technical partnership and collaborative funding with international and national organizations to provide and maintain more ICT facilities such as computers (hardware and software console), internet facilities, laptops, projectors, interactive boards, printing accessories in secondary schools and ensure these facilities are gainfully utilized by setting up monitoring teams to pay unscheduled visits to schools periodically.
  3. The remuneration of teachers should be subjected to upward review from time to time. This will to a great extent serve as morale boost and encourage right/positive attitude to work.
  4. Government, cooperate bodies and good spirited individuals should invest in education by providing the schools with power supply generators and foot the electricity charges of schools. This would help address the problem of inadequate power supply to schools.

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