A Critical Investigation Of Safety And Security Threats In Hospitality Industries In Cross Rivers State (A Case Study Of Some Selected Hotels In Calabar)

Project and Seminar Material for Human Resource Management (HRM)

A Critical Investigation Of Safety And Security Threats In Hospitality Industries In Cross Rivers State (A Case Study Of Some Selected Hotels In Calabar)


Abstract


This study was carried out to the safety and security threats in hospitality industries in Cross Rivers State using some selected some selected hotels in calabar as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of the 3 selected hotels in Calabar metropolis, Cross Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 63 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using mean score tables. The result of the findings reveals that the causes of the security threats faced by the hospitality industry are activities of dubious staff and guests in the hotel, porous and insufficient security network in the hotel, poor monitoring of hotel activities by the relevant public agencies, poor and irregular staff training on guest management, and insufficient security checks for guests and other visitors on their arrival. The study also revealed that the safety and security measures put in place by providers of hospitality services comprises of police patrol in the hotel, bomb detector in the hotel, use of efficient CCTV cameras in the hotel, engagement of security personnel for hotel security, checks for people and cars at the entrance, food materials are checked and verified before use, the security personnel are periodically trained and updated, and there is periodic and efficient security patrol along the room corridors. Therefore, it is of the researcherโ€™s opinion that hotels should thrive to ensure a balance between guest privacy and security while providing lighting and various security arrangements, bearing in mind the aggravation customers may feel in the event of privacy invasion. Therefore, night lighting outside the hotel building should be adequate to discourage suspicious movements during late hours. However, caution should be applied, so that night lighting is not reflected into guest rooms unnecessarily by providing quality curtain materials.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Safety as opined by Chan (2013) is a situation in which threats and circumstances that might cause bodily, mental, or physical damage are minimized in order to protect people’s health and well-being. It is a necessary resource for daily life, allowing people and groups to achieve their goals. Software assaults, theft of intellectual property, identity theft, theft of equipment or information, sabotage, and information extortion are all examples of security concerns (Chan,2013).

All of the aforementioned issues are some of the challenges that the hotel sector has faced, and they have caused a stutter in the way they do business as well as anxiety in the minds of potential clients who may want their services (Chan,2013). The hospitality sector is a commercial enterprise that sells its goods and services to visitors and tourists hence the need for hotel hospitality away from home grows as people travel more for business, health, cultural activities, and other reasons. When individuals leave their homes, they need shelter because they need a place to remain after their daily activities to let their bodies and souls to relax for the day and prepare for the following day’s activities. In the past, inns and hotels were the most common types of lodging available to travelers along roads and in large cities. The current hotel hospitality sector is divided into four categories: services accommodation, self-catering accommodation, residences of friends and relatives, and boats and youth hotels(Warner 2012).

The aspects that make up a hotel’s goods and services include amenities, services, image, pricing, and location. This implies that the aforementioned aspects are embedded in every hotel product and service. The hotel’s amenities include rooms, a bar, a restaurant, meeting rooms, conference halls, and recreational facilities such as swimming pools. The services pertain to the services supplied by the hotel facilities, while the image refers to how customers view the hotel. Furthermore, pricing reflects the value provided by the hotel via the aforementioned factors, as well as the satisfaction gained by visitors and tourists as a result of the features. Finally, the hotel’s location puts it in a specific region (Warner, 2012). The tourist sector benefits greatly from the hotel business as the number of visitors to a place will decrease if the hospitality business is not there. The hospitality sector is all about providing lodging for visitors and tourists in a place, and it has made a significant contribution to the economic growth of many countries, in different ways, toward raising their quality of life (Waldron, 2006). However, Terrorist attacks, as well as natural calamities such as the Asian tsunami, hurricanes, and forest fires, warn hospitality providers and purchasers to be ready for any eventuality. Security threats are categorized into numerous sorts and are not confined to a single aspect. Even Tarlow (2009) claimed that safety included avoiding possible death and injury to personnel and clients on the hotel property, such as through unintentional slips, falls, cuts, burns, and so on, as well as preventing property damage. Many hotel corporations have implemented electronic locks, fire sprinklers, smoke detectors, and closed circuit TVs to combat the danger (Jones, 2014). As the danger of insecurity expands throughout the world and poses a severe challenge for the hotel sector, the security of assets, the safety of the staff who keep them functioning, and the well-being of the visitors become more crucial. In today’s world of proliferating terrorism and heightened security concerns, hotel security departments are faced with a grim, new reality of experimenting with new ways to improve hotel security as hotels become increasingly vulnerable to attacks by radical groups who use terror as their primary strategy. Hotel attacks in Calabar have shown to hoteliers that no state or territory is immune from attack, and no hotel is totally secure (Lagat, 2014). The only method to avoid or lessen insecurity risks is for hotel security to be on high alert all of the time and to carry out their duties fully.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Tourism and hospitality are two Siamese twins that can never be separated, it is a reality. In nature, they are twins and intertwined (Chan, 2013). The tourism and hospitality industries are complementary. Without the hotel business, tourism activities would be incomplete. Hotels, motels, inns, caravans, and hostels are only a few examples of hospitality. Because of its many goods and services, it is supposed to be a home away from home. However, it is disappointing to observe that the business is now beset by several risks to its security and safety throughout the world (Tarlow, 2009). Religious threats, political threats, ethnic violence, herdsmen assaults, and terrorist attacks are all examples of this. Cyber crime, theft, fraud, fire outbreaks, staff arguing, criminally inclined guests, abduction, poison from food and drinks, sexual harassment, and indiscriminate clusters of buildings within the hotel vicinity are just a few examples (Tarlow, 2009). These unquestionably jeopardize the industry’s safety and security, particularly the hotel, which is meant to be first among equals. In the tourist sector, safety and security are essential for offering high-quality service. It serves as the hub for all activity in the hotel industry. The factors that make up a hotel’s goods and services to guests and visitors include amenities, services, image, pricing, and location. The hotel’s long-term viability is largely determined by the safety and security of these features. In this day of worrisome insecurity in the globe, security and safety are the prisms through which customers assess the image of the hotel. As a result, the hotel industry’s safety and security threats must be investigated (Tarlow, 2009).


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary objective of the study

  1. To examine the causes of security threats hospitality industry are faced with.
  2. To find out the various safety and security threat facing the hospitality industry in Calabar.
  3. To examine the safety and security measures put in place by providers of hospitality services.
  4. To find out the strategies that can be used to improve safety and security level in the hospitality industry.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for this study

  1. What are the causes of security threats hospitality industry are faced with?
  2. What are the various safety and security threat facing the hospitality industry in Calabar?
  3. What are the safety and security measures put in place by providers of hospitality services?
  4. What are the strategies that can be used to improve safety and security level in the hospitality industry?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will examine Safety and Security Threats in Hospitality Industries in Cross Rivers State.

This study will be of benefit to the Nigerian security agencies on the need to do more in the protection of citizens privacy from cyber attacks, it will also help them in bringing out new strategies that will help in curbing security threat.

This study is also significant to the hospitality industry as it help them see the need to improve their technology and also help them in knowing how to beef up and protect their hotels from been exposed to security threat.

This study is significant to the academic community as it will contribute to existing literature.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on Safety and Security Threats in Hospitality Industries in Cross Rivers State. The study also, examine the causes of security threats hospitality industry are faced with. More so,the study will find out the various safety and security threat facing the hospitality industry in Calabar. Furthermore, the study will examine the safety and security measures put in place by providers of hospitality services. Lastly, the study will find out the strategies that can be used to improve safety and security level in the hospitality industry. Hence this study will be delimited to some selected hotels in Calabar, Cross Rivers state.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher


1.8 Definition of terms

Safety:

The condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury

Security Threat:

A malicious act that aims to corrupt or steal data or disrupt an organization’s systems or the entire organization.

Hospitality Industry:

A broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, food and drink service, event planning, theme parks, travel and tourism.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the safety and security threats in hospitality industries in Cross Rivers State using some selected some selected hotels in calabar as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to examine the causes of security threats hospitality industry are faced with, find out the various safety and security threat facing the hospitality industry in Calabar, examine the safety and security measures put in place by providers of hospitality services., and find out the strategies that can be used to improve safety and security level in the hospitality industry.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were all staff of the 3 selected hotels in Calabar metropolis, Cross Rivers State.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The causes of the security threats faced by the hospitality industry are activities of dubious staff and guests in the hotel, porous and insufficient security network in the hotel, poor monitoring of hotel activities by the relevant public agencies, poor and irregular staff training on guest management, and insufficient security checks for guests and other visitors on their arrival.
  2. The various safety and security threat facing the hospitality industry in Calabar include; cases of kidnapping in this hotel, assassination, ritual killings/sacrifices, possible stomach poison from the food consumed, there are attitudinal crisis amongst guests and staff in the hotel, parking area theft, and unauthorized/unidentifiable visitors.
  3. The safety and security measures put in place by providers of hospitality services comprises of police patrol in the hotel, bomb detector in the hotel, use of efficient CCTV cameras in the hotel, engagement of security personnel for hotel security, checks for people and cars at the entrance, food materials are checked and verified before use, the security personnel are periodically trained and updated, and there is periodic and efficient security patrol along the room corridors.
  4. The strategies that can be used to improve safety and security level in the hospitality industry include; security personnel should be periodically trained and updated, there should be constant update on modern security gadgets and best practices, constant visit by the public sanitary inspection teams to the hotel, periodic training of kitchen staff on food hygiene and implications, daily monitoring of electrical and electronics facilities in the hotel rooms, and establishment of safety units for periodic safety `reports.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Encourage the hotel security managers to participate in the Community Policing Forum so that they get first-hand information. This will help the hotel because it will get better protection;
  2. Conduct regular patrols at the hotels since they are business areas that need police frequent patrols;
  3. Sign in an occurrence book every time that they visited the hotel;
  4. Respond promptly when called upon by the hoteliers when reporting crime; and share crime information such as prevalent crimes, perpetrators and their modus operandi as well as hot spot areas in their jurisdiction.
  5. Hotels should thrive to ensure a balance between guest privacy and security while providing lighting and various security arrangements, bearing in mind the aggravation customers may feel in the event of privacy invasion. Therefore, night lighting outside the hotel building should be adequate to discourage suspicious movements during late hours. However, caution should be applied, so that night lighting is not reflected into guest rooms unnecessarily by providing quality curtain materials.

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