A Critical Examination On Land Use And Allocation Procedure (A Case Study Of Owerri)
The aim of this project is to examine and evaluate the physical, social and economic effects of the present location of land use activities the Owerri Urban and recommend solution to the problems identified. Thus it involves the examination and analysis of the extend of development of land use activities problems caused by the development of these land use activities. The impact of government programmes and policies as regards the pattern of development and finally to suggest alternative strategies to overcome the identified problem in the area.
To achieve these, the methodology employed by the Author under primary collected in the field survey, which includes observation, interview, informal discussion and the use of questionnaires. The secondary data etc.
Due to the peculiar characteristics of the data collected the technique used in the analysis is the Faro Yamani formula.
This ensures a most proper lasting in the formulated hypothesis.
1.1 Background of the Study
In recent times there has been a rapant growth of towns and cities in this country. This growth has been accompanied with an ever increasing physical social and the technological changes as well as complex Urban Pattern of development.
This fast development with its attendant sprawling effects on the original settlement and town out skirted always cause some land use congestion. Personal and political pressures etc. within and around the area involved.
In 1976, Owerri became the capital of the then creates Imo State. Almost immediately, the original settlement which were more or less residential / agricultural areas became engulfed with the fast sprawling development in Owerri.In recent times there has been a rapant growth of towns and cities in this country. This growth has been accompanied with an ever increasing physical social and the technological changes as well as complex Urban Pattern of development.
This fast development with its attendant sprawling effects on the original settlement and town out skirted always cause some land use congestion. Land is one of the most essential natural resources for the survival and prosperity of humankind, and it is the platform on which human activities take place. It is also the source of materials needed for these activities. The literature offers several definitions of land and land resources, one of them comes from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO): “Land and Land Resources refer to a delineable area of the earth’s terrestrial surface, encompassing all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below this surface, including those of the near-surface, climate, the soil and terrain forms, the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes, rivers, marshes and swamps), the near-surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater and geohydrological reserve, the plant and animal populations, the human settlement pattern and physical results of past and present human activity (terracing, water storage or drainage structures, roads, buildings, etc.)” (FAO/UNEP, 1997). This definition highlights that land includes all material components needed for human activity. If land resources are to support and ensure continuity of human activity on a sustainable basis, these various components must be preserved and allowed to interact in a balanced way. This implies that land has many functions that need to be taken into consideration when planning development, to ensure that an efficient and balanced allocation of land resources results.Personal and political pressures etc. within and around the area involved.Although the Land Use Act of 1978 was meant to usher in a new land reform in Nigeria, it soon became a clog in the wheel of development over the years. This was more so because the Military Government which promulgated it also ensured it was embedded in the Constitution of the country. Thus, any attempt to rectify its inadequacies required a constitutional amendment. There were thus many protests both to have the Act expunged from the Constitution and to amend it in very many substantial way. It took the decision of the current President of the Federation to have land reform as one of the seven point agenda of his administration. This paper is, therefore, divided into six parts. The first discusses the land tenure situation before the Land Use Act of 1978. The second reviews the Land Use Act and some of the challenges it has thrown up over the years. The third then considers the 2 circumstances leading to the setting up of the Presidential Technical Committee on Land Reform in 2009 whilst the fourth examines the activities of the Committee since it was set up. The fifth considers the problems which the Committee is likely to meet in the process of executing its mandate. A concluding section reflects on the prospects before the proposed Land Reform Commission which, it is hoped, will soon take over from the Committee.
Land is perhaps the single most important natural resource in the sense that it affects every aspect of a people’s live; their food, clothing, and shelter. It is the base for producing raw material for the manufacturing industry. It is an important resource. No nation-city or rural area can survive as an entity without it. Thus, every person in a nation – the banker, the industrialist, the labourer, the educator, the student, the planner, the farmer- has a vital stake in the country’s land problems and its proper utilization (Acquaye, 1976). A careful and detailed analysis of what role land has played in the lives of the people and more importantly how the system of land tenure has evolved has affected the lives, beliefs and general disposition of the people who live on the land and thus revealed some fundamental attitudes
In 1976, Owerri became the capital of the then creates Imo State. Almost immediately, the original settlement which were more or less residential agricultural areas became engulfed with the fast sprawling development in Owerri.However the morphology of these land activities in the area was observed not be the function of only the original settlement patten, but also a function of the government policies so in relation to the development of the area. These policies so in relation to the development of the area. These policies and their subsequent implementation in no small measure, contributed to the Owerri Urban with their resultant effects on the indigenous other inhabitants of the area, as the existing facilities in the area.
However the morphology of these land activities in the area was observed not be the function of only the original settlement patten, but also a function of the government policies so in relation to the development of the area. These policies so in relation to the development of the area. These policies and their subsequent implementation in no small measure, contributed to the Owerri Urban with their resultant effects on the indigenous other inhabitants of the area, as the existing facilities in the area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The main problem of this study was to examine and evaluate the physical, social and economic effect of land use activities in its present location in Owerri Urban and recommend solution to the problems identified, because there has been series of criticism against the manner by which land was allocated to people in Owerri Urban
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
This research work aimed towards recognizing the existing land use situation in Owerri Urban and thus high lighting the implications and results of previous development programmes and their implications. This will then severs as basis for formulating a more functional and efficient planning programmes for the area.
The objectives are
- To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the allocation procedures.
- To identified the achievements and shortcoming of the procedure.
- To suggest possible means of implementing better land used and allocation procedure.
1.4 Possible Research Hypotheses
The postulation of this study was that;
- H0: conflicts of interest do not arise between political planners and the physical planners in the planning and executive of land use activities
H1: conflicts of interest often arise between political planners and the physical planners in the planning and executive of land use activities
- H0: there are no advantages and disadvantages of the allocation procedures
H2: there are advantages and disadvantages of the allocation procedures
1.5 Research Design and Methodology
In this study, case study research method was to be used. Important information were get through the use of primary and secondary sources like interviews questionnaires observation, journals and books on related topic. These will be distributed to Estate surveyors, lawyers, town planners, civil servants and residents of government layout. Data collected will be analyzed statistically with percentage and chi – square..
1.6 Significance of Study
The significance of study was to serve as a guide to land experts v12 Estate surveyors, lawyers etc. on the land for efficient utilization of the available land in Owerri urban. It will also help in educating the public. On the various taken by such commute to use and maintain the zoning ordinances, for uniformity in the development process of the capital city.
1.7 Definition of Some Important Terms
Land itself is a genetic term that include the physical soil and all improvement on it such as plants, building e.t.c. the use to which any parcel of land is put to accordance to the various human activities is known as Land use.
Structure of an activity or element
Urban sprawl is the irregular development of cities without apparent plan to the east, west, north and south.
A town/city—which supply a wide rang of good and service to it’s country side.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc.
- Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.
- Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was on examination of land use and allocation procedure.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing challenges of land use and allocation procedure
The study has revealed fundamental issues on existing land policy in Nigeria. It identified the organization in charge of land management in Nigeria. Challenges associated to land administration and management were also identified, they include: poor policy implementation, land acquisition and speculation problem, low accessibility to land, inadequate infrastructural facilities and social amenities among others. Certain new trends measures are suggested that will enhance land acquisition policy, public participation, technical infrastructure, formation of Government layouts, and formulation of good urban policy on land to eliminate administrative bottle necks.
The brief presentation has highlighted the importance of land as well as the complexity of land use in a developing country like Nigeria. Because of its economic and political importance, any policies made on land use and tenure must relate to the exiting situation in the country, the needs of the country for development and the welfare of the people. Thus land polices in a predominantly agrarian country like Nigeria must give considerable regard to the needs of farmers. The policies should guarantee access to opportunities made possible by the existence of the nation’s supply of agricultural land and housing.
Haven successfully complete the studies, the following recommendation were made:
- There should be effective and efficient control measure on the land use activities
- Adequate legislation should be made to control mining and exploration on land
- Only licensed company should be allowed to excavate or mine any mineral resources on the land
- There should be a limit to the quantity of sand and gravel extracted from a particular land mass
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