Critical Assessment Of The Use Of Social Media During Covid 19 Pandemic In Nigeria

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Critical Assessment Of The Use Of Social Media During Covid 19 Pandemic In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the use of social media during covid 19 pandemic in Nigeria using Ikeja, Lagos state as a case study. The study was carried out to ascertain the extent social media was used for creating Covid-19 awareness in Nigeria, find out the various social media platforms used to create Covid-19 awareness in Nigeria, ascertain whether the use of social media platforms helped in dissemination information during Covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria, and determine the effectiveness of social media in dissemination of information during Covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of social media users resident in Ikeja, Lagos state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent social media was used for creating Covid-19 awareness in Nigeria is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that the various social media platforms available for information dissemination during the covid 19 pandemic in Nigeria includes: Twitter, Instagram, Whatsapp, Facebook, Tik-tok, and telegram. Therefore, it is recommended that Nigerians should ensure that while consuming health messages from social media, attention should be paid to the sources to ensure that they are reliable and credible. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

No event has ravaged the human race like the novel corona virus, consuming life and actively halting human activities since WWII. Corona virus is a respiratory infection that affects human breathing and can result in death if not treated properly. This novel virus spreads from person to person on a random basis, emerged in December 2019 as a result of China’s scientific incursion and has since swept the globe, causing considerable social and economic burden, as well as an increase in hospitalizations and deaths (Wu & McGoogan, 2020). The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified the disease as a global disease that affects humanity and social lives, and has given it the codename COVID-19. Dryness is one of the disease’s signs, cough, fever, sore throat, and shortness of breath are all symptoms of the flu. it is defined as a pandemic that affects people of all ages, genders, countries, and regions. Surprisingly, it is not a death sentence unless the patient has an underlying illness such as diabetes, kidney failure, or hypertension, or if the patient fails to show up for treatment on time. The disease can be transmitted in three layers: index event, first touch, and population spread. The index case refers to when a person contracts the virus directly, while the first touch refers to when an individual or group of individuals has direct contact with the virus’s carrier. The term “population spread” now refers to a situation in which a group of people becomes infected as a result of clustering or body contact with an infected individual (s).

Since the first index case was registered in Nigeria on February 27, 2020, the government, organisations, institutions, and well-to-do people, like those in other parts of the world, have been working feverishly to contain the disease’s spread. To accomplish this, a variety of precautionary procedures are recommended, including social/physical distancing, coughing to elbow, hand washing (using running water and soap or an alcoholic-based hand sanitizer), sneezing on tissue papers and proper disposal of the paper, avoidance of handshaking and kissing, and self quarantine. In partnership with the National Centre for Disease Control, the Nigerian government (federal and state) has established isolation centers and special health facilities to handle the disease (NCDC). In accordance with international best practices, the government established a Presidential Task Force to track, solicit funds/support from private and corporate organizations, and work closely with the NCDC. The committee’s mandate includes informing people of steps being taken to prevent the epidemic from spreading further, as well as advising the federal government on the best course of action in terms of public health. While these efforts are ongoing, knowledge has been circulating at a breakneck speed through conventional and social media channels. According to Kapoor, Tamilmani, Rana, et al. (2017), social media refers to a variety of user-driven channels that promote the dissemination of persuasive content, the production of dialogue, and communication to a larger audience. The word “social media” refers to a modern type of media that is shared and participatory in nature, involving others in the production, organization, sharing, finding, and use of knowledge. WhatsApp, Facebook, Flickr, Youtube, Twitter, and Quora are only a few examples of social networking. because of its immediacy, it is an essential source of information exchange. The announcement of the first Coronavirus victim was made through various social media platforms and various websites. Since a good number of Nigerians have access to these platforms, it was easy to spread this information. Subsequently, Health Care Agencies such as the NCDC updated the masses on the number of cases that have are positive, fatal or have recovered in Nigeria through these social media platforms. This gave Nigerian citizens a better chance to be fully prepared for Covid-19; as opposed to the period of the Influenza pandemic in which there was limited news on the virus when it came to Nigeria. At the time of the Influenza, the colonial government of Nigeria was only able to curtail it in parts of Lagos by disinfecting houses; however, limitations in the spread of information prompted the faster spread of the disease to other parts of the country (Adebowale, 2020).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In retrospect, social media has proven to be not just a medium for the distribution of news and knowledge, but also a way of spreading panic, fear, and misunderstanding among the public, despite the NCDC’s warnings not to engage in social media violence by spreading misinformation (NCDC, 2020). This is partially due to the fact that anybody can use social media, so unverified and false information can be spread without fear or favour. “The media have a freedom of choice, and individuals are free to choose which broadcast best serves their interest,” Savrum and Leon (2015) explain. They go on to say that the media exacerbates social problems by exacerbating negative perceptions of them. When social media is used in a derogatory way, however, the uninformed are easily duped into believing false facts, which can lead to chaos and uncertainty among the general public.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to assess the use of social media during Covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria. Other objective of this study are:

  1. Ascertain the extent social media was used for creating Covid-19 awareness in Nigeria.
  2. Find out the various social media platforms used to create Covid-19 awareness in Nigeria.
  3. Ascertain whether the use of social media platforms helped in dissemination information during Covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria.
  4. Determine the effectiveness of social media in dissemination of information during Covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. To what extent was social media was used for creating Covid-19 awareness in Nigeria?
  2. What are the various social media platforms used to create Covid-19 awareness in Nigeria?
  3. Has the use of social media platforms helped in dissemination information during covid 19 pandemic in Nigeria?
  4. What is the effectiveness of social media in dissemination of information during covid 19 pandemic in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Social media was not effective in dissemination of information during Covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria.
  • Ha: Social media was effective in dissemination of information during the Covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will be of significant to the general public as it will serve as awareness on the usefulness of social media during turbulent times.it will also be of significant to scholars and researchers who wants to carry out further research on the study


1.7 Scope of the Study

The purpose of this research is to assess the use of social media during covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The resident of Lagos state will be sample respondent for the study


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Social Media:

Social media are interactive technologies that allow the creation or sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.

Covid 19:

A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to spread from person to person through droplets released when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the use of social media during covid 19 pandemic in Nigeria using Ikeja, Lagos state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the use of social media during covid 19 pandemic in Nigeria using Ikeja, Lagos state as a case study.

The study specifically was aimed to ascertain the extent social media was used for creating Covid-19 awareness in Nigeria, find out the various social media platforms used to create Covid-19 awareness in Nigeria, ascertain whether the use of social media platforms helped in dissemination information during covid 19 pandemic in Nigeria, and determine the effectiveness of social media in dissemination of information during covid 19 pandemic in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are social media users resident in Ikeja, Lagos state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The extent social media was used for creating Covid-19 awareness in Nigeria is high.
  2. The various social media platforms used to create Covid-19 awareness in Nigeria includes: Twitter, Instagram, Whatsapp, Facebook, Tik-tok, and telegram.
  3. The use of social media platforms helped in dissemination information during covid 19 pandemic in Nigeria.
  4. Social media has been effective in dissemination of information during covid 19 pandemic in Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. Nigerians should follow and frequently read health messages on social media especially Whatsapp and Facebook since most health messages come from these two platforms.
  2. Nigerians should ensure that while consuming health messages from social media, attention should be paid to the sources to ensure that they are reliable and credible.
  3. Other social media platforms should encourage dissemination of health message in their platforms in order to increase the social media options of Nigerians to patronise rather than just almost absolute dependence primarily on Whatsapp and Facebook.

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