A Critical Analysis Of Reading Interest Of Senior Secondary School Students And Preferences By Gender Of Students In Nigeria
This study was carried out on the reading interest of senior secondary school students and preferences by gender of students in Nigeria using selected secondary schools in mainland local government area of Lagos State as case study. To achieve this, three significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of the selected schools in Mainland Local Government Area Of Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents while 150 were received and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage, while the hypothesis were tested using Product Moment Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a relationship between study habit and academic performance of students, while study environment has an effect on students on study habit. The findings also revealed that the factors which affects students’ academic performance include; poor study habit, availability of school facilities, availability of instructional materials, and teachers effectiveness. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that students should be properly screened on their level of academic performance and study habit by the teachers/lecturers through the use of standardized study habit inventory, pretest, quiz etc. This will help them to identify students with problem of study habit so as to institute compulsory remedies and academic advising for underachievers in order to improve their study habit and academic performance.
1.1 Background of the Study
In the field of education & psychology, learning has been discovered all over the world to be a highly complex problem. Several researchers have tried to explain it differently and the description of each is partially true. Over the years, researches on factors that influence academic performance of students have attracted the interest of not only researchers but concern of teachers, counselors, psychologists, and school administrators as well. Study method is the knowledge and application of effective study skills or techniques by students. The term study habit refers to the way in which students’ study either systematically, efficiently or inefficiently. In line with what has been said above, we can deduce that good study habit will definitely yield positive academic performances and achievement and also inefficient or poor study habit leads to academic failure. Students’ attitude and study habit towards any subject has been described as a function of passion coupled with their belief on that particular which has a long way to go on their academic performances.
In Nigeria, many factors have been highlighted to influence the ability of students to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Such factors include; state of health, motivation, anxiety and state of mind, conducive and suitable environment for studying, availability of textbooks and well equipped libraries. In a research carried out by (Nuthana & Yenagi, 2009) the causes of poor academic performance among Nigeria students were thoroughly examined. In which some of these factors identified include; low student’s intellectual ability, achievement motivation, lack of goals, low self-esteem, low socio-economic status of the family, poverty and poor study habit as a major factor.
A survey was carried out in some selected schools in Nigeria to identify some major causes of low academic performances in students. Some of the problems identified include inadequate teachers, problem of inadequate facilities in the school, problems caused by poor parental background, unfavorable government policies and low educational sector funding (Ajila and Olutola 2007). Likewise, Ichado (1998) also dispute environment from which the student comes from play a major role in influencing study habits which invariably affect academic performance. The concept of study habit is broad as it combines nearly all other sub-topics under it such as study attitude, study method, and study skill. In a research conducted by Allport (1960), it was argued that attitude toward study by drafting a good study pattern can greatly contribute to students’ academic performance. Successful learners all over the world are said to have adopted positive attitude towards study and are time conscious over what they have to do.
According to Hussain (2000) study habit refers to predispositions which students have developed towards private readings through a period of time. According to him, study habit is a gateway to successful achievement in studies.
A research was carried out by Morahan (1999), he found out that male and female have different ways of studying (study habit). In this study, he discovered that the male student took up courses that have more of logic and sciences while female student were attracted to simpler courses and such it is in line with their passion which require different study habit and might have a positive effect on academic performance of students. Positive academic performance and achievement depends upon the student’s ability to schedule his time, the plan of his study, the habit of concentration, note –taking, mental review, over learning, the judicious application of whole and part method massed and distributed learning and so on. In other words, positive academic performance is a function of proper study habits and skills. Since study habits are an important factor in learning, it becomes necessary to investigate into its nature.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The problems associated with study habits might have a major effect on a student’s academic performances, it is believed that everyone has a different study habit and it is important to find out the best personal way to study. Studying with friends has a long way to go in student’s study habits, it has a positive influence in which they discuss what have been read together but also has a negative effect in which they might not read but discuss throughout the stipulated time for reading which boils down to time wastage.
A very good and conducive environment encourages students study habit and might have positive impact of their academic achievements but students reading in an unfavorable environment might find it difficult to study which might affect their academic achievements. Students with financial constraints might also find it difficult to perform excellently well in their academics
1.3 Objectives of Study
The following are the objectives of this study:
- To examine the correlation between study habit and academic performance
- To examine the effect of study environment on study habit
- To determine factors affecting students’ study habit and academic performance
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the correlation between study habit and academic performance?
- What is the effect of study environment on study habit?
- What are the factors affecting students’ study habit and academic performance?
- HO: There is no significant relationship between study habit and academic performance
- HA: There is significant relationship between study habits and academic performance
- HO: There is no significant relationship between study environment and students’ academic performance
- HA: There is significant relationship between study environment and students’ academic performance
1.6 Significance of Study
The following are the significance of this study:
The outcome of this study will help students in understanding the effect on study habit and study environment on their academic performance and helps in serving as a guide for a positive result.
This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7 Scope / Limitations of Study
This study on the impact of study habit on academic performance of students will cover various approaches to study and its effect on the academic performance of students.
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation or reflection
An acquired behavior pattern regularly followed until it has become almost involuntary.
The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed.
A person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the reading interest of senior secondary school students and preferences by gender of students in Nigeria using selected secondary schools in mainland local government area of Lagos State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was onthe reading interest of senior secondary school students and preferences by gender of students in Nigeria using selected secondary schools in mainland local government area of Lagos State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the correlation between study habit and academic performance, examining the effect of study environment on study habit, and determining factors affecting students’ study habit and academic performance.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students of the selected schools in Mainland Local Government Area Of Lagos State.
In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.
- There is a relationship between study habit and academic performance of students.
- There is a significant relationship between study environment and students’ academic performance.
- Readiness to study, emotional readiness, determination, time of study, interest in the course of study are among many others the factors which affects students study habit.
- The factors which affects students’ academic performance include; poor study habit, availability of school facilities, availability of instructional materials, and teachers effectiveness.
Based on the findings the researcher recommends;
- The Ministry of Education and the Nigeria Education Service should organize in-service training for head teachers, teachers, and parents to help them identify the preferred study habits of the students and guide them accordingly.
- It is recommended that head teachers and teachers adopt measures to strengthen students’ reading and note-taking and time management skills to boost academic performance.
- The students should be reoriented to improve study habits in relation to time allocation, concentration, and homework/ assignment since these are crucial aspects of schooling. In line with this, the Colleges of Education and the universities in charge of teacher education should incorporate contents related to students’ study habits into their curricula so that graduates are well grounded to assist students in their study habits for improved academic performance
- The students should be properly screened on their level of academic performance and study habit by the teachers/lecturers through the use of standardized study habit inventory, pretest, quiz etc. This will help them toidentify students with problem of study habit so as to institute compulsory remedies and academic advising for underachievers in order to improve their study habit and academic performance.
- The teachers/lecturers should encourage the students to make use of the library and other facilities in school that will help them develop good study habit and better academic performance. This should be done during orientation/welcoming ceremony of new students and from time to time.
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